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Canada
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In Canada, men are more likely than women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 51% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Canada, 73% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2020 compared to 56% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, Canada invested a total of USD 11 854 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 5.9% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 94% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Canada compared to 86% - 91% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.3 %, rank 41/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60 %, rank 1/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.4 %, rank 2/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50 %, rank 2/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.6 %, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.8 %, rank 4/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24 %, rank 1/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.4 %, rank 2/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.7 %, rank 3/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.4 %, rank 2/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 42/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.7 %, rank 40/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the smallest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (30.4 %, rank 34/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (33.8 %, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.7 %, rank 42/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.9 %, rank 41/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 35 is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.5 %, rank 25/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 36/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of master's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Canada. (100 %, rank 1/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Canada. (100 %, rank 1/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (32.5 Years, rank 2/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (7.4 %, rank 40/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 41/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.2 %, rank 4/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Canada, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of education is relatively low. (3.4 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all national tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (5.3 %, rank 30/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Canada is relatively small. (28 %, rank 30/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Canada, the proportion of young men who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-19 year-olds is comparatively large. (4.6 %, rank 5/81 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of new international entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (1.7 %, rank 18/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (0.9 %, rank 32/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively high. (13.4 %, rank 5/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (5.2 %, rank 29/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in Canada. (1.6 %, rank 12/15 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Canada, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1.4 %, rank 35/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Canada, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.3 %, rank 3/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to tertiary education is high. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    In Canada, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (2.9 %, rank 40/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is relatively small in Canada. (0.1 %, rank 25/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on tertiary education from initial source of funds in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 25/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (75.2 %, rank 3/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially high. (63.1 %, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females under 30 represent a large proportion of teachers in upper secondary education in Canada. (82.7 %, rank 2/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively large. (60.3 %, rank 4/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a small proportion of teachers in primary education in Canada. (69.7 %, rank 35/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in upper secondary education is especially high in Canada. (69.7 %, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71664 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    It takes lower secondary teachers less time to progress through the salary scale in Canada compared to other OECD and partner countries. (10.6 Years, rank 24/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (10.4 %, rank 5/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (42.5 %, rank 24/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (63.5 %, rank 25/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (72.9 %, rank 26/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (53.3 %, rank 26/27 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (32.3 %, rank 25/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (64 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (68.7 %, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (75.9 %, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Canada

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Canada

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.