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Bulgaria
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Bulgaria
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Bulgaria, the total compulsory instruction time over the course of primary and lower secondary education is lower than the OECD average, at 4 235 hours, distributed over seven grades.
  • In Bulgaria, 33% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 32% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 1% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 9% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Bulgaria,22% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification at upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary level as their highest level of attainment.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,16% of 25-34 year-olds in Bulgaria have not attained an upper secondary qualification, higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Bulgaria aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 38% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 46%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Bulgaria spends USD 6983 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • In Bulgaria,50% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average older than their general programme peers, with 51% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 34/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    In Bulgaria, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (6.8 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 34/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 34/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Bulgaria has one of the smallest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (31.6 %, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Bulgaria is one of the highest among countries with available data. (28.3 %, rank 5/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Bulgaria, the proportion of first-time entrants into doctorate's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.9 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics ans statistics is relatively small. (40.9 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in health and welfare in Bulgaria is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (61.4 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37.1 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Bulgaria is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (32.3 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in information and communication technologies in Bulgaria is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (63.5 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in Bulgaria is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.7 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.2 %, rank 22/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.8 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Bulgaria is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Bulgaria is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Bulgaria is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 28/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at all early childhood education level is comparatively low. (2.3 %, rank 72/72 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at pre-primary level is comparatively low. (2.3 %, rank 86/86 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Bulgaria is one of the highest compared to other countries with available data. (44.6 %, rank 1/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is relatively high compared to the other countries. (67.2 %, rank 1/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, upper secondary vocational students among all vocational students are relatively more numerous than in other OECD or partner countries. (97 %, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education is relatively large compared to other OECD or partner contries. (100 %, rank 1/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students among all vocational students is relatively small compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0.4 %, rank 25/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Bulgaria is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary programmes in Bulgaria is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 39/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Bulgaria is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 29/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in lower secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (62 %, rank 3/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The share of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (74.4 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the average age of post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (41.2 Years, rank 2/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (72.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (38.9 %, rank 32/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in Bulgaria is among the oldest. (28 Years, rank 2/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Bulgaria is relatively low. (37.4 %, rank 24/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Bulgaria is relatively small. (11.7 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Bulgaria is relatively small. (10.6 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (1.9 %, rank 22/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.9 %, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.1 %, rank 2/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Bulgaria, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (64.9 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (42.9 %, rank 23/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.3 %, rank 26/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (64.9 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (67.1 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (69.6 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of information and communication technologies is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (36.7 %, rank 3/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (16.7 %, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (8.8 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (16.9 %, rank 5/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the proportion of new entrants in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Bulgaria, international or foreign students from Latin America and the Caribbean are least represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, international or foreign students from Europe are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (81.8 %, rank 5/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in Bulgaria is relatively low. (5.1 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Bulgaria is relatively low. (5.5 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Bulgaria is relatively low. (7.9 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Bulgaria is relatively low. (1 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Bulgaria is relatively low. (5.9 %, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 %, rank 1/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.7 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.9 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.2 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of students enrolled in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics among all international or foreign students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (10.3 %, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6712 USD Equivalent, rank 27/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5211 USD Equivalent, rank 35/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6232 USD Equivalent, rank 35/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (476 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Bulgaria is comparatively low. (5469 USD Equivalent, rank 34/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Bulgaria is comparatively low. (8108 USD Equivalent, rank 34/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in Bulgaria is comparatively low. (6031 USD Equivalent, rank 34/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Bulgaria is comparatively high. (2463 USD Equivalent, rank 2/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student on research and development for primary to tertiary education in Bulgaria is comparatively low. (101 USD Equivalent, rank 34/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the annual expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low. (5882 USD Equivalent, rank 35/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Bulgaria is one of the large among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 2/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Bulgaria is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7584 USD Equivalent, rank 34/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Bulgaria, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies. (3.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (0.7 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (2.4 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 41/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (3 %, rank 39/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to 2015. (129 Index, rank 1/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for primary to tertiary education is high compared to 2015. (119 Index, rank 2/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is small. (2.2 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2010, from 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively large in Bulgaria. (6 Index, rank 2/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively low in Bulgaria. (2.9 %, rank 27/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Bulgaria is one of the high among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 2/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    Compared to 2015, the share of total public expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively largest in Bulgaria. (131 Index, rank 4/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.5 %, rank 4/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79.8 %, rank 5/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76.6 %, rank 3/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79.8 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (43.1 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in tertiary education is especially high in Bulgaria. (48 %, rank 5/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of male teachers in pre-primary education is especially low in Bulgaria. (0.5 %, rank 38/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in upper secondary vocational education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.8 %, rank 26/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the share of post secondary non-tertiary education teachers under 30 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (2.6 %, rank 18/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22851 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22851 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22851 USD Equivalent, rank 25/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22851 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22851 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22851 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22851 USD Equivalent, rank 26/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22851 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (22006 USD Equivalent, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (22006 USD Equivalent, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low in Bulgaria. (2.6 Ratio, rank 20/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially low in Bulgaria. (5.1 Ratio, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Bulgaria. (5.1 Ratio, rank 23/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 Ratio, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Bulgaria. (7.3 Ratio, rank 24/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Bulgaria is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2028 Hours, rank 37/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2353 Hours, rank 30/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Bulgaria is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2207 Hours, rank 37/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the shortest compared to other countries with available data. (2484 Hours, rank 28/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Bulgaria is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4235 Hours, rank 38/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4837 Hours, rank 30/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (507 Hours, rank 37/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (588 Hours, rank 30/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (736 Hours, rank 37/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (54.6 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (1.3 %, rank 38/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (1.4 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in Bulgaria. (1.1 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is high in Bulgaria. (42.7 %, rank 5/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds full- and part-time with below secondary education compared to those of adults with an upper secondary education are relatively low in Bulgaria. (62.7 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Bulgaria. (146 Index, rank 4/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Bulgaria. (138 Index, rank 5/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning more than twice the overall median in Bulgaria is one of the highest among countries with available data. (12 %, rank 3/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the high among countries with available data. (97.7 %, rank 1/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Bulgaria, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively low compared to OECD and other members with available data (66.4 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (106.2 %, rank 1/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (88.3 %, rank 4/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (93 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training without an upper secondary in Bulgaria is relatively high. (55.4 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Bulgaria is relatively low (13.6 %, rank 27/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Bulgaria is relatively high. (10.3 %, rank 4/40 , 2022) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
    Visualisations
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Bulgaria

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Bulgaria

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.