Explore the OECD's reports or draw from a wide variety of education indicators and data to construct your own, customised country reports, highlighting the facts, developments and outcomes of your choice.

Country

Belgium
Change country

Data profiles:



Belgium
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Belgium, 31% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education. A further 5% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 19% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Belgium,27% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 24% at upper secondary level and 2% at post-secondary non-tertiary level and 1% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Workers in Belgium aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 25% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment is 23%.
  • In Belgium,25-34 year-old workers with bachelor's attainment earn 42% more than their peers without upper secondary attainment, while those with master's or doctoral attainment earn 71% more.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Belgium spends USD 16 429 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • In Belgium, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 11 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member) and 8 students for every teaching staff member in vocational upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 15 students per staff member).
  • In Belgium,31% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average older than their general programme peers, with 34% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
  • Profile View

    Select first some countries to compare, choose the charts you wish to display and customise them.

    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Attainment

    In Belgium, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (22.6 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    In Belgium, the proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (0.6 %, rank 27/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Belgium, the average age of new entrants in short-cycle programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21 Years, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the average age of new entrants in bachelor's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.4 Years, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Belgium is comparatively young. (19.5 Years, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the average age of new entrants in master's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.5 Years, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.5 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.1 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38.2 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.4 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Belgium is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (25.2 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in information and communication technologies in Belgium is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (6.2 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Belgium is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (43.7 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Belgium is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (28.9 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in education in Belgium is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (41.4 %, rank 22/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Belgium is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (6.3 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in information and communication technologies in Belgium is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (8.4 %, rank 26/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiaryprogrammes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Belgium is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (39 %, rank 17/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Belgium is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (8.6 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (52.4 %, rank 19/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (29.6 %, rank 26/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Belgium is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93.5 %, rank 4/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58.3 %, rank 4/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 21/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.2 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Belgium is one of the lowest compared to other countries with available data. (16.3 %, rank 19/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Belgium has one of the largest shares of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes. (17.1 %, rank 3/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of lower secondary vocational students among vocational students is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (13.3 %, rank 4/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is relatively high compared to the other countries. (32.3 %, rank 4/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is relatively large compared to other OECD or partner contries. (52.5 %, rank 1/3 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Belgium has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of two-year-olds in pre-primary education in Belgium is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.4 %, rank 1/80 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0.3 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    In Belgium, the average age of post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (22 Years, rank 25/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively low. (23.6 Years, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in Belgium is among the youngest. (23.1 Years, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of master's or equivalent graduates in Belgium is among the oldest. (29.3 Years, rank 5/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.2 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in Belgium is relatively small. (1.1 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of information and communication technologies in Belgium is relatively small. (0.5 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0.1 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50.2 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.7 %, rank 1/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (33 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.6 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high in Belgium. (16.2 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 25/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37.8 %, rank 24/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (51.4 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (44 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (27.4 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (12.8 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Belgium, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively low. (3.6 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively small. (0.4 %, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of services is comparatively small. (1.3 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the proportion of new entrants in education master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of new entrants in Information and communication tecnologies master's programmes is one of the lowest, compared to other countries with available data. (1 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of new entrants in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics bachelor's programmes is relatively low in Belgium among countries with available data. (19.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Belgium, the proportion of new international entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (0 %, rank 22/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Belgium is relatively low. (12.7 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of students enrolled in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics among all international or foreign students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (18.6 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of students enrolled in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary among all international or foreign tertiary students is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (4.8 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Belgium, the share of 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 18/20 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16429 USD Equivalent, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16576 USD Equivalent, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Belgium is comparatively high. (14368 USD Equivalent, rank 5/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Belgium is comparatively high. (1166 USD Equivalent, rank 4/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Belgium is one of the small among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-57.5 %, rank 34/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of current expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (-57.5 %, rank 34/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Belgium, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.7 %, rank 1/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (4.4 %, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (5.6 %, rank 4/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education is high compared to 2015. (112 Index, rank 5/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively low in Belgium. (-57.4 %, rank 37/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2010, from 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively small in Belgium. (-58 Index, rank 37/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high in Belgium. (5.7 %, rank 3/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Belgium is one of the low among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-57.3 %, rank 35/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large. (0.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Belgium is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 5/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of capital expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (-57 %, rank 35/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    In Belgium, the share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Belgium, the share of capital expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.6 %, rank 34/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of current expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.4 %, rank 3/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of capital expenditure on primary through tertiary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.3 %, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of current expenditure on primary through tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.7 %, rank 2/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of capital expenditure on secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 33/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (16 %, rank 5/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively large. (61.1 %, rank 3/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of short-cycle tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (31.1 %, rank 19/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in Belgium is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.9 %, rank 5/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers under 30 in upper secondary vocational education is especially high in Belgium. (11.4 %, rank 2/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially low. (8.3 Ratio, rank 38/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level is especially low. (9 Ratio, rank 42/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.8 Ratio, rank 39/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially low in Belgium. (7.8 Ratio, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the number of students per teacher in public lower secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 Ratio, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Belgium. (8.5 Ratio, rank 17/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the number of students per teacher in public upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.9 Ratio, rank 42/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Belgium. (9.1 Ratio, rank 17/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the number of students per teacher in all public secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.6 Ratio, rank 39/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Belgium. (8.9 Ratio, rank 18/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the number of students per teacher in public institutions tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (28.5 Ratio, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the number of students per teacher in public institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (29.4 Ratio, rank 4/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the number of students per teacher in public bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the highest among countries with available data. (28.4 Ratio, rank 2/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (47 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (68.7 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (56.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Belgium. (42.5 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (75.2 %, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (20.1 %, rank 5/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3 %, rank 3/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 3 months to less than 12 months is one of the smallest in Belgium, compared to other OECD countries. (23.2 %, rank 25/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the largest in Belgium, compared to other OECD countries. (59.8 %, rank 4/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 3 months to less than 12 months is one of the smallest in Belgium, compared to other OECD countries. (31 %, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Belgium. (19.3 %, rank 4/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    In Belgium, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (47 %, rank 1/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.2 %, rank 25/27 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Belgium, the inactivity rate 25-64 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (58.6 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (36.6 %, rank 2/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (19.6 %, rank 3/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (15.7 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (16 %, rank 26/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (20.1 %, rank 29/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (7.2 %, rank 29/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (30.1 %, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (39 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (18.7 %, rank 26/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (35.1 %, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of workers earning more than twice the median among those with a bachelor's or equivalent education degree is comparatively low. (6.1 %, rank 32/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is comparatively low. (1.9 %, rank 30/31 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a tertiary education degree is comparatively . (12.7 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Belgium. (116 Index, rank 26/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Belgium. (113 Index, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning more than twice the overall median in Belgium is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (86.6 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (95.9 %, rank 1/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (89.1 %, rank 4/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of men with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Belgium is relatively low. (1.8 %, rank 34/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Belgium is relatively low. (4.4 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.6 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Belgium, below upper-secondary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 Average score, rank 22/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, upper-secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.5 Average score, rank 21/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 Average score, rank 21/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of Internet users without an upper secondary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (33 %, rank 2/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of Internet users with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.2 %, rank 2/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Belgium, the share of Internet users with tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.8 %, rank 2/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
    
    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
    
    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
    
    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
    
    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Belgium

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Belgium

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.