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Education at a Glance 2019 (EAG 2019): Highlights
EAG 2019, Chapter A: The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning
EAG 2019, Chapter B: Access to education, participation and progression
EAG 2019, Chapter C: Financial resources invested in education
EAG 2019, Chapter D: Teachers, learning environment and organisation of schools
TALIS 2018: Full selection of indicators
TALIS 2018: Starting Strong Survey
Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC): Full selection of indicators
PISA 2015: Full selection of indicators
PISA 2015 (Volume III): Students' Well-Being
PISA 2015 (Volume IV): Students' Financial Literacy
PISA 2015 (Volume V): Collaborative Problem Solving
Access & Participation
Organisation & Governance
Finance & Funding
Learning environment
Teachers
Evaluation & Quality assurance
Equity
Gender
Digital divide
Special needs
Socio-economic status
Migrant background
Economic & Social outcomes
Internationalisation
Research & Innovation
School leadership
Trends shaping education
Attainment
Skills
Low performers
Computers, education & skills
Early childhood education & care
Tertiary education
Demographic, social & economic indicators
EAG 2019, Chapter C: Financial resources invested in education
  • OECD countries spent an average of 3.5% of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary institutions, and public expenditure at this level increased by 18% since 2005.
  • On average, OECD countries spend 1.7 times more per student at the tertiary level than in non-tertiary education (primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels). OECD countries spend on average USD 10 500 per student on primary to tertiary educational institutions. This represents about USD 9 400 per student at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level, and USD 15 600 at tertiary level.
  • Tuition fees charged by institutions vary significantly across countries. In about one-third of countries, public institutions do not charge any tuition fees for national students enrolled in bachelor's or equivalent programmes. In another third of countries, tuition fees are low or moderate (below USD 2 600 per year). In the remaining countries, they are high and range from USD 3 000 to over USD 9 000 per year.
  • In 2016, OECD countries spent an average of 5% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions from primary to tertiary levels, with wide variations across OECD and partner countries.
  • On average, the share of national resources devoted to educational institutions in non-tertiary education (primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels) was 3.5% of GDP, much larger than the share devoted to tertiary education (1.5% of GDP).
  • In financing tertiary education, private sources account on average for around one-third of expenditure on educational institutions or 0.5% of GDP. At non-tertiary levels, private spending on education represents only one-tenth of the total expenditure on institutions, or 0.4% of GDP.
  • On average across OECD countries, public funds account for a larger share of total spending at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level (90%) than at the tertiary level of education (66%).
  • The share of private investment on tertiary educational institutions depends mostly on the tuition fees charged to students. More than 60% of total expenditure is privately sourced in Australia, Chile, Japan, Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • Total public spending on primary to tertiary education as a percentage of total government expenditure averages 11% across OECD countries, ranging from around 7% to around 17%.


  • | Education at a Glance 2019 (EAG 2019): OECD Indicators | Annexes from Education at a Glance 2019 | OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics 2018 | On-line databases |
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory text.