Search for specific education indicators by country, theme or level of education and compare the results using interactive charts and tables.

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Education at a Glance 2017: Highlights
Education at a Glance 2017 (EAG 2017): Full selection of indicators
PISA 2015: Full selection of indicators
PISA 2015 (volume III): Students' Well-Being
PISA 2015 (volume IV): Students' Financial Literacy
Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC, 2015): Full selection of indicators
OECD Skills Outlook 2017: Skills and Global Value Chains
TALIS 2013: Full selection of indicators
Access to education and participation
Economic and social outcomes and transition to the labour market
Financial and human resources invested in education
The learning environment and organisation of schools
Teachers and school leadership
Early childhood education and care
Tertiary education
Migrant background
Gender differences in education
Computers, education and skills
Low performers
Impact of the global economic crisis on education
Demographic, social and economic indicators
PISA 2015 (volume IV): Students' Financial Literacy
Over the past decades, developed and emerging countries and economies have become increasingly concerned about the level of financial literacy of their citizens, particularly among young people. This initially stemmed from concern about the potential impact of shrinking public and private welfare systems, shifting demographics, including the ageing of the population in many countries, and the increased sophistication and expansion of financial services. Many young people face financial decisions and are consumers of financial services, including digital ones, in this evolving context. As a result, financial literacy is now globally recognised as an essential life skill.

  • Across the 10 participating OECD countries and economies, 22% of students score below the baseline level of proficiency in financial literacy (Level 2) . Students performing below Level 2 can, at best, recognise the difference between needs and wants, can make simple decisions on everyday spending, and can recognise the purpose of everyday financial documents, such as an invoice.
  • Some 12% of students across the participating OECD countries and economies score at Level 5 in financial literacy – the highest level of proficiency. Students performing at Level 5 can make the kinds of financial decisions that will be relevant to them only in the future. They can describe the potential outcomes of financial decisions, showing an understanding of the wider financial landscape, such as income tax.
  • Students who do well in financial literacy are likely to perform well in other areas too, and students who have poor financial literacy skills are likely to do poorly in other subjects. On average across the 10 participating OECD countries and economies, around 38% of the financial literacy score reflects factors that are uniquely captured by the financial literacy assessment; the remaining 62% of the score reflects skills that can be measured in the PISA mathematics and/or reading assessments.
  • Only in Italy do boys perform better than girls – by 11 score points – in financial literacy. By contrast, in Australia, Lithuania, Poland, the Slovak Republic and Spain, girls perform better than boys. On average across the 10 participating OECD countries and economies, there are slightly more boys than girls among students performing at or below Level 1 (24% of boys and 21% of girls) and at Level 5 (12% of boys and 11% of girls).
  • Advantaged students score 89 points higher than disadvantaged students, on average across OECD countries and economies, equivalent to more than one PISA proficiency level.
  • Immigrant students score 26 points lower in financial literacy, on average, than native-born students of similar socio-economic status.
  • More than 70% of students hold a bank account in Australia, the Flemish Community of Belgium, the participating Canadian provinces and the Netherlands. In Australia, the Flemish Community of Belgium, the participating Canadian provinces, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United States, students who hold a bank account perform better in financial literacy by over 20 score points than students of similar socio-economic status who do not have a bank account.
  • On average across OECD countries and economies, 64% of students earn money from some formal or informal work activity.
  • Financially literate students are more likely to expect to earn a university degree and work in a high-skilled occupation later on than low performers in financial literacy with similar characteristics and performance in mathematics and reading.


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    OECD average

    Non-OECD Countries

    TALIS average
    Albania
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    Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Guangdong (China)
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2017 for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory text.