Explore the OECD's reports or draw from a wide variety of education indicators and data to construct your own, customised country reports, highlighting the facts, developments and outcomes of your choice.

Country

Data profiles:


Kosovo
Student performance (PISA 2018)
  • In reading literacy, the main topic of PISA 2015, 15-year-olds in Kosovo score 353 points compared to an average of 487 points in OECD countries. Girls perform better than boys with a statistically significant difference of 25 points (OECD average: 30 points higher for girls).
  • On average, 15-year-olds score 366 points in mathematics compared to an average of 489 points in OECD countries. Boys perform better than girls with a non statistically significant difference of 4 points (OECD average: 5 points higher for boys).
  • In Kosovo, the average performance in science of 15-year-olds is 365 points, compared to an average of 489 points in OECD countries. Girls perform better than boys with a statistically significant difference of 6 points (OECD average: 2 points higher for girls).
  • Socio-economic status explains 5% of the variance in reading performance in Kosovo (OECD average: 12%).
  • The average difference between advantaged and disadvantaged students in reading is 40 points, compared to an average of 89 in OECD countries. However, 17% of disadvantaged students are academically resilient (OECD average: 11%).
  • Profile View

    Select first some countries to compare, choose the charts you wish to display and customise them.

    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Student performance in reading

    The mean score in reading performance is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (353 PISA Score, rank 73/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Boys' performance in reading is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (340 PISA Score, rank 73/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Girls' performance in reading is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (366 PISA Score, rank 73/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The score difference in reading between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (177 PISA Score, rank 76/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in reading (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (78.7 %, rank 3/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in reading (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 75/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing boys in reading (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (83.1 %, rank 3/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing boys in reading (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 71/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing girls in reading (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (74.4 %, rank 2/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing girls in reading (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 75/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student performance in science

    The mean score in science performance is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (365 PISA Score, rank 74/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Boys' performance in science is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (362 PISA Score, rank 75/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Girls' performance in science is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (368 PISA Score, rank 74/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The score difference in science between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (165 PISA Score, rank 77/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in science (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (76.5 %, rank 3/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in science (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 75/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing boys in science (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (77.3 %, rank 3/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing boys in science (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 75/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing girls in science (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (75.7 %, rank 3/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing girls in science (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 74/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The long term change in science mean performance over the period of participation of Kosovo in PISA shows one of the strongest decreases among PISA-participating countries and economies. (-14 PISA Score, rank 34/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The change in science performance between 2015 and 2018 shows one of the strongest decreases among PISA-participating countries and economies. (-14 PISA Score, rank 22/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student performance in mathematics

    The mean score in mathematics performance is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (366 PISA Score, rank 74/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Boys' performance in mathematics is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (368 PISA Score, rank 72/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Girls' performance in mathematics is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (364 PISA Score, rank 74/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The score difference in mathematics between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (197 PISA Score, rank 74/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in mathematics (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (76.6 %, rank 4/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in mathematics (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.1 %, rank 73/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing boys in mathematics (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (74.9 %, rank 5/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing boys in mathematics (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.2 %, rank 72/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing girls in mathematics (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (78.2 %, rank 4/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing girls in mathematics (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 75/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student performance

    The percentage of low performers in all subjects (mathematics, reading and science) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (66 %, rank 3/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in at least one subject (among mathematics, reading and science) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (87.2 %, rank 2/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of students enrolled in a vocational programme is one of the highest among countries and economies participating in PISA. (52.2 %, rank 8/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    School climate

    The disciplinary climate in language-of-instruction lessons is one of the best compared to other countries and economies. (0.5 PISA Index, rank 10/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Students in Kosovo are one of the most co-operative, compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.5 PISA Index, rank 4/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student well-being

    In Kosovo, the average level of student's life satisfaction is one of the highest among countries and economies participating in PISA. (8.3 PISA Index, rank 3/70 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Students in Kosovo report to have one of the strongest positive feelings, compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.46 PISA Index, rank 3/69 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of students reported always feeling sad in Kosovo, compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies. (3.7 %, rank 66/72 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Students' engagement, drive and self-beliefs

    A small share of students disagreed or strongly disagreed that 'your intelligence is something about you that you can't change very much'. (27.6 %, rank 77/78 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Fifteen-year-old students in Kosovostrongly believe in their own ability to perform, especially facing adversity, compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.33 PISA Index, rank 9/77 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Performance and socio-economic status

    The percentage of students who have no clear idea about their future job among disadvantaged students is one of the smallest. (14 %, rank 70/78 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of resilient students in reading (i.e. students in the bottom quarter of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status [ESCS] who perform among the top quarter of students internationally) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (17.3 %, rank 2/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The score difference in reading between students in the top quarter of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) and those in the bottom quarter of ESCS is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (40 PISA Score, rank 74/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The reading performance of students in the bottom international decile of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) scale is among the lowest, compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (323 PISA Score, rank 72/75 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The reading performance of students in the second lowest international decile of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) scale is among the lowest, compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (345 PISA Score, rank 73/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The reading performance of students in the international median of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) scale is among the lowest, compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (350 PISA Score, rank 76/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The reading performance of students in the ninth international decile of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) scale is among the lowest, compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (398 PISA Score, rank 76/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The reading performance of students in the top international decile of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) scale is among the lowest, compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (377 PISA Score, rank 76/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Kosovo has one of the largest percentage of low performers in reading among socio-economically disadvantaged students. (86.3 %, rank 3/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Kosovo has one of the largest percentage of low performers in reading among socio-economically advantaged students. (65.7 %, rank 1/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Kosovo has one of the smallest percentage of top performers in reading among socio-economically advantaged students. (0 %, rank 75/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Kosovo is one of the countries and economies where students in the bottom quarter of ESCS are less likely to score below Level 2 in reading, compared to non-disadvantaged students (3 other quarters of ESCS). (2.01 Ratio, rank 69/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The variation in reading performance explained by students' and schools' economic, social and cultural status (ESCS), is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (4.9 %, rank 73/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Performance and diversity

    The percentage of low-performers in reading (below proficiency level 2) among students with an immigrant background is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (88.5 %, rank 5/70 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    The shortage of schools' educational material is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (1.14 PISA Index, rank 1/78 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' practices

    Students in Kosovo perceived their teachers as being very enthusiastic compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.48 PISA Index, rank 2/75 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Students in Kosovo perceived their teachers as being very supportive compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.48 PISA Index, rank 6/74 , 2018) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
      Reading literacy is defined as students' capacity to understand, use, evaluate, reflect on and engage with texts in order to achieve one's goals, develop one's knowledge and potential, and participate in society.

    • Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China) and Singapore scored significantly higher in reading than all other countries/economies that participated in PISA 2018. Estonia, Canada, Finland and Ireland were the highest-performing OECD countries in reading.
    • Some 77% of students, on average across OECD countries, attained at least Level 2 proficiency in reading. At a minimum, these students are able to identify the main idea in a text of moderate length, find information based on explicit, though sometimes complex, criteria, and reflect on the purpose and form of texts when explicitly directed to do so. Over 85% of students in Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China), Canada, Estonia, Finland, Hong Kong (China), Ireland, Macao (China), Poland and Singapore performed at this level or above.
    • Around 8.7% of students, on average across OECD countries, were top performers in reading, meaning that they attained Level 5 or 6 in the PISA reading test. At these levels, students are able to comprehend lengthy texts, deal with concepts that are abstract or counterintuitive, and establish distinctions between fact and opinion, based on implicit cues pertaining to the content or source of the information. In 20 education systems, including those of 15 OECD countries, over 10% of 15-year-old students were top performers.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
      Mathematics literacy is defined as students' capacity to formulate, employ and interpret mathematics in a variety of contexts. It includes reasoning mathematically and using mathematical concepts, procedures, facts and tools to describe, explain and predict phenomena.

    • On average across OECD countries, 76% of students attained Level 2 or higher in mathematics. At a minimum, these students can interpret and recognise, without direct instructions, how a (simple) situation can be represented mathematically (e.g. comparing the total distance across two alternative routes, or converting prices into a different currency). However, in 24 countries and economies, more than 50% of students scored below this level of proficiency.
    • Around one in six 15-year-old students in Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China) (16.5%), and about one in seven students in Singapore (13.8%), scored at Level 6 in mathematics, the highest level of proficiency that PISA describes. These students are capable of advanced mathematical thinking and reasoning. On average across OECD countries, only 2.4% of students scored at this level.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
      Science literacy is defined as the ability to engage with science-related issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen. A scientifically literate person is willing to engage in reasoned discourse about science and technology, which requires the competencies to explain phenomena scientifically, evaluate and design scientific enquiry, and interpret data and evidence scientifically.

    • On average across OECD countries, 78% of students attained Level 2 or higher in science. At a minimum, these students can recognise the correct explanation for familiar scientific phenomena and can use such knowledge to identify, in simple cases, whether a conclusion is valid based on the data provided. More than 90% of students in Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China) (97.9%), Macao (China) (94.0%), Estonia (91.2%) and Singapore (91.0%) achieved this benchmark.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    • In 11 countries and economies, including the OECD countries Australia, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Japan, Korea, Norway and the United Kingdom, average performance was higher than the OECD average while the relationship between socio-economic status and reading performance was weaker than the OECD average.
    • In spite of socio-economic disadvantage, some students attain high levels of academic proficiency. On average across OECD countries, one in ten disadvantaged students was able to score in the top quarter of reading performance in their countries (known as academic resilience), indicating that disadvantage is not destiny. In Australia, Canada, Estonia, Hong-Kong (China), Ireland, Macao (China) and the United Kingdom, all of which score above the OECD average, more than 13% of disadvantaged students were academically resilient.
    • In all countries and economies that participated in PISA 2018, girls significantly outperformed boys in reading - by 30 score points, on average across OECD countries. The narrowest gender gaps (less than 20 score points) were observed in Argentina, Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama and Peru; the widest (more than 50 score points) were observed in Finland, Jordan, the Republic of North Macedonia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    • Co-operation amongst students was more prevalent than competition, on average across OECD countries in 2018. Some 62% of students reported that students co-operate with each other while only 50% of students reported that their schoolmates compete with each other.
    • Some 23% of students reported being bullied at least a few times a month, on average across OECD countries.
    • Some 88% of students across OECD countries agreed that it is a good thing to help students who cannot defend themselves and it is wrong to join in bullying. Girls and students who were not frequently bullied were more likely to report stronger anti-bullying attitudes than boys and frequently bullied students.
    • On average across OECD countries, 21% of students had skipped a day of school and 48% of students had arrived late for school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test. In Georgia, Montenegro, Saudi Arabia and Turkey, at least one in five students had skipped school at least three times during that period.
    • On average across OECD countries, 67% of students reported being satisfied with their lives (students who reported between 7 and 10 on the 10-point life-satisfaction scale). Between 2015 and 2018, the share of satisfied students shrank by 5 percentage points.
    • In a majority of school systems, students who expressed a greater fear of failure scored higher in reading, but reported less satisfaction with life, than students expressing less concern about failing, after accounting for the socio-economic profile of students and schools.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Kosovo

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.