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Diagram of the education system



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  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Turkey

    Turkey
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • In Turkey only 7% of 3-year-olds and 36% of 4-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education in 2013, among the lowest rates of all OECD countries (OECD average 74% and 85%, respectively). However, enrolment rates of 4-year-olds increased by more than 30 percentage points between 2005 and 2013.
  • Among 20-24 year-olds, 36% are neither employed, nor in education or training (NEET) (OECD average: 18%). Some 60% of 25-29 year-old women were NEET in 2014, one of the highest rates among OECD countries.
  • Turkey has one of the highest earnings premiums for upper secondary and tertiary education among OECD countries. In 2013, tertiary-educated adults earned 88% more on average than adults with upper secondary education (the OECD average proportion was 60%). An adult with upper secondary education earned 35% more than an adult with a below upper secondary education (OECD average difference was 23%).
  • Unlike most OECD countries, women are well represented in the fields of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics. Some 48% of tertiary graduates in science and 25% of graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction were women (OECD averages of 39% and 24%, respectively).
  • Despite important increases since 2005, levels of expenditure per student remain low compared to OECD. Between 2005 and 2012, expenditure at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels increased by 65%, while the number of students increased by 7%, meaning expenditure per student increased 55% (OECD average 21%).
  • Turkey has one of youngest teaching workforces of all OECD countries. Some 61% of primary and 76% lower secondary teachers (OECD average 38%) are under 40. However, the students-per-teaching-staff ratio is high, especially at the primary level: 20 pupils per teaching staff (OECD average of 15 pupils).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36 %, rank 38/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50 %, rank 38/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21 %, rank 38/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50 %, rank 3/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64 %, rank 3/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17 %, rank 37/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25 %, rank 35/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 %, rank 38/40 ) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-old adults with less than primary education. (5 %, rank 6/26 ) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-old adults who completed only primary education. (46 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Turkey, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64 %, rank 26/28 ) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (19 Index, rank 10/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education before the age of 30. (16 Index, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3 %, rank 29/33 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (1 %, rank 20/24 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (47 Index, rank 14/23 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (47 Index, rank 6/19 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (40 %, rank 4/16 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (47 Index, rank 24/24 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the highest among countries with available data. (86 %, rank 4/21 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 %, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36 %, rank 35/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    In Turkey the percentage of young people expected to enter short-cycle tertiary programmes during their lifetimes is comparatively high. (35 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in full-time education for 5-39 year-old men in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17 Years, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-years-old adults who enter tertiary education in Turkey is relatively high. (87 %, rank 8/26 ) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the highest percentages of students enrolled in public upper secondary institutions. (97 %, rank 5/39 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of male graduates in sciences from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (16 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in health and welfare from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (36 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (13 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in sciences from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (14 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (48 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Classes are particularly large in lower secondary schools. (28 Students, rank 8/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly large in primary schools. (23 Students, rank 10/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively high in Turkey. (55 Ratio, rank 2/18 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3514 USD Equivalent, rank 33/37 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2577 USD Equivalent, rank 36/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2904 USD Equivalent, rank 35/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (155 Index, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (165 Index, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (107 Index, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (122 Index, rank 6/28 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (193 Index, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (159 Index, rank 3/29 ) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the change in GDP between 2010 and 2012 is comparatively large. (111 Index, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15 %, rank 9/36 ) Download Indicator

    The change in public expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (165 Index, rank 2/31 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (193 Index, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level, excluding subsidies) as a percentage of GDP is among the biggest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (118 Index, rank 3/29 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively big, excluding subsidies. (122 Index, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the biggest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (106 Index, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively big. (118 Index, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22 Students, rank 5/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17 Students, rank 7/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (20 Students, rank 8/39 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially high. (19 Students, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17 Students, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27139 USD Equivalent, rank 17/26 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for primary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Turkey. (114 Index, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Turkey. (112 Index, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2003 and 2013 in statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Turkey. (112 Index, rank 5/24 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Turkey. (504 Hours, rank 31/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively small in Turkey. (504 Hours, rank 29/32 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (61 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (76 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (76 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (0 %, rank 34/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers younger than 30 in secondary schools is among the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 39 in secondary schools is especially high. (41 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (76 %, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (62 %, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (84 %, rank 34/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (65 %, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively low. (10 %, rank 29/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (11 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (8 %, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively high. (6 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (17 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (12 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (39 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (50 %, rank 1/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (57 %, rank 4/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (64 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (79 %, rank 1/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (81 %, rank 2/25 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite high. (191 Index, rank 7/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite high. (211 Index, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite high. (188 Index, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (86 %, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (82 %, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (95 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in sciences and engineering is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (54 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of sciences and engineering is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (22 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (90 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (95 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is one the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (10 %, rank 2/25 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (8 %, rank 6/38 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 15-19 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Turkey. (21 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Turkey. (36 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Turkey. (38 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 15-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Turkey. (32 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-old men who are not in education, are unemployed and are not in the labour force in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-old women who are not in education, are unemployed and are not in the labour force in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds without an upper secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Turkey. (34 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with an upper secondary or post-secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Turkey. (29 %, rank 3/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Turkey. (26 %, rank 3/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.