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Diagram of the education system

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  • Education system in Turkey

    Turkey
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2019)
  • The number of young adults who have attained a tertiary education has doubled in the last decade in Turkey. Even so, almost half of them did not even complete their upper secondary education.
  • The employment rate for tertiary-educated young adults has fallen by 6 percentage points in the past decade, with women particularly hard hit. In contrast, employment rates for those without an upper secondary education have improved.
  • While Turkey's expenditure per student on primary to tertiary institutions is still low, public expenditure as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) increased by 24% since 2010. Much of this increase was concentrated on tertiary institutions.
  • Low salaries and limited progression limit the attractiveness of the teaching profession in Turkey. At the top of the scale, teachers' average statutory salaries are only about 27% higher than their starting salaries compared to 61-67% on average across OECD countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.8 %, rank 28/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 30/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.5 %, rank 10/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.9 Years, rank 33/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 30/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (30.7 %, rank 4/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (5.2 %, rank 10/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.2 %, rank 31/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (6.5 %, rank 32/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with below upper secondary education participating in formal education is low in Turkey. (2.2 %, rank 20/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Among adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education, a low proportion participate in non-formal education. (9.9 %, rank 31/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Among adults (25-64 years-old) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, a low participate in non-formal education. (23.8 %, rank 32/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Among adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education, a low participate in non-formal education. (41.6 %, rank 33/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Participation rate of 25-64 year-olds in job-related non-formal education not sponsored by the employer is low in Turkey, compared to other countries with available data. (7.7 %, rank 27/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Participation rate of 25-64 year-olds in not job-related non-formal education is high in Turkey, compared to other countries with available data. (20.2 %, rank 9/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women participating in job-related non-formal education sponsored by the employer is small. (56.4 %, rank 29/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72.5 %, rank 35/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.1 %, rank 38/40 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.6 %, rank 41/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 9/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the average age of new entrants into master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.1 Years, rank 21/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of tertiary students enrolled in private institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.9 %, rank 39/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of new female entrants into master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (53.3 %, rank 18/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme in Turkey ranks as one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.5 %, rank 31/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.2 %, rank 38/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, the percentage of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0.8 %, rank 29/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (0.9 %, rank 27/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (0.5 %, rank 26/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctoral or an equivalent education before the age of 30. (0.3 %, rank 23/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    In Turkey, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (57.7 %, rank 4/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high. (39.5 %, rank 8/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.4 %, rank 8/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 39/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 41/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Turkey is relatively large. (15.4 %, rank 7/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Turkey is relatively large. (14.2 %, rank 7/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of information and communication technologies in Turkey is relatively small. (0.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Turkey, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 33/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively low. (2 %, rank 32/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.2 %, rank 33/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45.8 %, rank 31/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.4 %, rank 30/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled in the field of education in Turkey is relatively low. (5.4 %, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of national tertairy students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Turkey is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 35/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Turkey is relatively low. (1.4 %, rank 36/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled in the field of health and welfare in Turkey is relatively low. (8 %, rank 33/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of female among new entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (52.4 %, rank 31/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of male among new entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (68.4 %, rank 30/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Turkey has a small share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (0.8 %, rank 26/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the smallest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.5 %, rank 38/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Turkey is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 10/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled abroad in Turkey is relatively low. (0.6 %, rank 42/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, international students from North America are least represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.5 %, rank 41/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, international students from Latin America and the Caribbean are least represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 42/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, international students from Asia are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (69.5 %, rank 7/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, international students from Africa are highest represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.2 %, rank 7/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of new international entrants into master's long first degreee (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (6.5 %, rank 13/20 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information in Turkey is relatively high. (14.2 %, rank 9/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Turkey is relatively low. (0.8 %, rank 36/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Turkey is relatively high. (25.2 %, rank 2/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.6 %, rank 34/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (2.1 %, rank 34/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.7 %, rank 33/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.9 %, rank 33/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.9 %, rank 31/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Turkey, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (843 Hours, rank 24/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Turkey is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2880 Hours, rank 31/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2880 Hours, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Turkey is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6251 Hours, rank 33/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6251 Hours, rank 28/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (720 Hours, rank 21/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 Years, rank 34/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Turkey. (26 Students, rank 10/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Turkey, the salary cost of lower-secondary teachers per student is comparatively low. (1605 USD Equivalent, rank 27/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The salary cost of lower secondary teachers per students (as a percentage of GDP per capita) in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.7 %, rank 26/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The salary cost of upper secondary teachers per students (in USD) in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1830 USD Equivalent, rank 13/16 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The salary cost of upper secondary teachers per students (as a percentage of GDP per capita) in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 13/16 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10519 USD Equivalent, rank 26/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5633 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4168 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4659 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core and ancillary services, from primary to below-tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4505 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core, ancillary services and R&D, from primary to tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5633 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student on research and development for primary to tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (355 USD Equivalent, rank 27/32 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary, is relatively low. (4505 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Excluding R&D activities, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary to tertiary, is relatively low in Turkey. (5278 USD Equivalent, rank 30/32 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Turkey, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.9 %, rank 4/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (1.4 %, rank 8/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.9 %, rank 1/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (25.1 %, rank 9/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively small. (75 %, rank 35/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (74.6 %, rank 27/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in early childhood and primary education is one of the highest in Turkey compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (28 USD Equivalent, rank 5/30 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.6 Ratio, rank 3/30 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94.3 %, rank 33/40 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61.1 %, rank 39/40 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.6 %, rank 31/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.1 %, rank 34/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.4 %, rank 19/20 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.4 %, rank 31/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (19.7 %, rank 3/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (15.6 %, rank 33/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (6.3 %, rank 34/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (14.8 %, rank 34/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (12 %, rank 34/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28545 USD Equivalent, rank 26/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.85 Ratio, rank 7/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.85 Ratio, rank 18/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24187 USD Equivalent, rank 25/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24187 USD Equivalent, rank 25/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24187 USD Equivalent, rank 26/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28545 USD Equivalent, rank 27/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26 USD Equivalent, rank 17/22 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.27 Ratio, rank 30/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (32953 USD Equivalent, rank 27/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (26956 USD Equivalent, rank 27/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.27 Ratio, rank 30/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.27 Ratio, rank 31/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.27 Ratio, rank 32/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.27 Ratio, rank 32/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.27 Ratio, rank 34/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Pre-primary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Turkey. (0.97 Ratio, rank 13/18 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Primary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Turkey. (0.97 Ratio, rank 22/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Lower-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Turkey. (0.97 Ratio, rank 22/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Upper-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Turkey. (0.97 Ratio, rank 22/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average pre-primary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27561 USD Equivalent, rank 17/19 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average primary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest in Turkey relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (27561 USD Equivalent, rank 23/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average lower secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27561 USD Equivalent, rank 22/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average upper-secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27561 USD Equivalent, rank 23/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (65.5 %, rank 38/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (76.2 %, rank 40/44 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (59.6 %, rank 37/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Turkey, compared to other OECD countries. (20.1 %, rank 32/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is high in Turkey. (38.8 %, rank 7/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in Turkey. (15.4 %, rank 6/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (75.2 %, rank 6/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (58.7 %, rank 2/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (67 Index, rank 36/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (73 Index, rank 29/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (71.8 %, rank 30/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (82.1 %, rank 8/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (81.5 %, rank 5/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (92.9 %, rank 5/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The proportion of 15-19 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Turkey. (15.3 %, rank 4/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 years-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (10.2 %, rank 8/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 years-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (20.9 %, rank 3/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    Among employed adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education, a large share have difficulties to fulfill their family responsabilities because of their jobs, compared to other countries with available data. (88.4 %, rank 1/18 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education, a large share have difficulties to fulfill their family responsabilities because of their jobs, compared to other countries with available data. (71.8 %, rank 1/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of employed adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education who have concentration difficulties at work because of family responsabilities is high in Turkey. (81.8 %, rank 1/18 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of employed adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education who have concentration difficulties at work because of family responsabilities is high in Turkey. (63.4 %, rank 1/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Weekly working hours among employed 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education are long in Turkey compared to other OECD countries. (45.4 Hours/week, rank 1/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Weekly working hours among employed 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are long in Turkey compared to other OECD countries. (42.8 Hours/week, rank 1/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education, a large share have high flexibility of working hours. (33.3 %, rank 3/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education, a small share have high flexibility of working hours. (20.6 %, rank 25/28 , 2015) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • In 2018, 44% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 35% in 2008, on average across OECD countries.
    • Tertiary-educated adults also reap higher earnings, although this varies by field of study. Their advantage increases with age too: 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education earn 38% more than their peers with upper secondary education while 45-54 year-olds earn 70% more.
    • While engineering, manufacturing and construction, and information and communication technologies are two fields most commonly associated with the best labour market outcomes, only 14% of graduates earned a degree in the former and 4% earned a degree in the latter in 2017.
    Visualisations
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    • Although graduation from upper secondary education increased by 6 percentage points between 2005 and 2017, 15% of 25-34 year-olds did not attain upper secondary education in 2018, on average across OECD countries.
    • In some countries, vocational programmes are prominent at the upper secondary level. On average across OECD countries, 40% of first-time upper secondary graduates earned a vocational qualification in 2017; in Austria, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia, more than 66% of this population did.
    • At the lower secondary level, the average class shrank by 6% while teachers' statutory salaries increased by 8% between 2005 and 2017, on average across OECD countries.
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    • In 2017, more than one in three children under the age of three were enrolled in early childhood education and care services, on average across OECD countries - an increase of 7 percentage points compared to 2010.
    • Between the age of 3 to 5, on average across OECD countries, 87% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education.
    • Annual expenditure per child in early childhood development programmes was greater than in pre-primary education in 2016 on average across OECD countries. However, as a share of GDP, expenditure on early childhood development is lower.
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    • In 2016, expenditure per tertiary student amounted to USD 15 556, approximately one-third of which was devoted to research and development.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at the tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
    • OECD countries spent an average of 3.5% of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary institutions in 2016, and public expenditure at this level increased by 18% since 2005.
    Visualisations
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    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    • About 10% of primary and secondary teachers are under the age of 30, on average across OECD countries.
    • While the teaching profession is dominated by women, the share of female teachers decreases with the level of education taught: almost all teachers at the pre-primary level are women, however they make up less than half of the teaching force at tertiary level.
    • Salaries tend to increase with the level of education taught, but teachers' earnings remain between 78% and 93% of the earnings of other tertiary-educated adults.
    Visualisations
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    Country Reviews for Turkey

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.