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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

Education system in Sweden

Sweden
Overview of the education system (EAG 2017)
  • Health and engineering are popular career choices in Sweden. In 2015, the share of graduates at bachelor’s and doctoral levels in the fields of health and welfare was double the average across OECD countries. Both health and engineering professions enjoy almost full employment in Sweden.
  • The enrolment rate in early childhood programmes at age 2 in Sweden is 87 %. Up until age 6, the proportion enrolled is higher than on average across OECD countries.
  • Upper secondary first-time graduation rates have fallen from 76% to 70% between 2005 and 2015 in Sweden. Although the overall dropout rate for young adults age 18-24 is lower compared to other EU countries, a two year follow up after expected completion, shows that the share of upper secondary students who have not graduated and are no longer enrolled is on average slightly higher in Sweden than in other OECD countries.
  • Entrance to the labour market is still a challenge for the young population. In Sweden, 8.2 % of 15-29 year-old adults were in 2016 neither employed, nor in education or training (NEET) although the share has declined in recent years. Sweden made progress in closing the education performance gap between native and immigrant 15 year old students. A substantial part of the migrant disadvantage has been eradicated within one generation.
  • Tertiary education is expanding, albeit more slowly than the OECD average, attracting large inflows of international students at the highest levels. Tertiary graduates enjoy better employment rates than their OECD peers.
  • Teachers’ salaries lag behind both teachers in other OECD countries and similarly educated workers in the country.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    Excluding mobile students, Sweden has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (1.6 %, rank 6/27 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Sweden has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (41.1 %, rank 22/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Sweden has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (36.5 %, rank 20/24 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Sweden, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.7 %, rank 30/37 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Sweden has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (26.5 %, rank 19/20 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Sweden has one of the highest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (62.3 %, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 20-29 year-olds in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34.5 %, rank 5/39 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91.4 %, rank 10/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Sweden is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2297 Hours, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (766 Hours, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.43 Ratio, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.44 Ratio, rank 31/33 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Years, rank 7/39 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 5/39 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (178 Days, rank 29/38 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively low in Sweden. (9.56 Ratio, rank 18/21 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low in Sweden. (10.44 Ratio, rank 17/18 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.44 Ratio, rank 25/27 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13219 USD Equivalent, rank 8/40 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13198 USD Equivalent, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10804 USD Equivalent, rank 9/39 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 37/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.9 %, rank 32/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (125 Index, rank 5/29 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary school is especially large. (224 Days, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (31.4 %, rank 28/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (30.1 %, rank 28/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (16.2 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels), Sweden has one of the highest percentages of those with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills. (57.2 %, rank 3/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report that moderate or complex ICT(information and communication technologies) skills are required at work is relatively high. (70.5 %, rank 10/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report having the computer skills needed to do their job is quite high. (90.6 %, rank 7/15 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (77 %, rank 10/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.8 %, rank 16/17 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 %, rank 19/25 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (74.9 %, rank 9/29 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.76 Ratio, rank 9/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.86 Ratio, rank 17/26 ) Download Indicator

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.38 Ratio, rank 27/33 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for primary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Sweden. (116 Index, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Sweden. (115 Index, rank 7/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2003 and 2013 in statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Sweden. (111 Index, rank 9/24 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (35574 USD Equivalent, rank 10/30 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.15 Ratio, rank 23/27 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.34 Ratio, rank 27/33 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.38 Ratio, rank 27/33 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37006 USD Equivalent, rank 9/23 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (127 Index, rank 37/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (122 Index, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (120 Index, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Sweden. (10.8 %, rank 29/35 ) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    • In most OECD countries, the most popular tertiary degrees held by adults are in business, administration or law. However, interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) grows with higher levels of education, with almost double the share of students graduating from these fields at doctoral level than at bachelor’s level in 2015.
    • STEM-related fields tend to benefit from higher employment rates on average across OECD countries though inequities persist: natural sciences, mathematics and statistics graduates are more likely to have similar employment rates as arts and humanities graduates – both lower than the rates enjoyed by engineers or ICT specialists.
    • Gender parity is still a distant dream for some fields of study. At the tertiary level, women still represent approximately only one in four entrants to engineering, manufacturing and construction, but three out of four entrants in health and welfare on average across OECD countries.
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    • On average across OECD countries, expenditure has been increasing at a much higher rate than student enrolments at all levels, particularly tertiary. Total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions increased by more than twice the rate of students over the same period, reflecting the priority given by government and society to higher education.
    • While public expenditure on educational institutions has clearly been rising, it did not keep up with the increase in GDP between 2010 and 2014 on average across OECD countries. This has led to a decrease of 2% in public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP over the same period.
    • The share of public funding is significantly higher at lower levels of education than for tertiary education on average across OECD countries. While the public sector still provides 91% of the funds at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels, it only provides for 70% of total expenditure at tertiary level.
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    • The teaching profession is getting older, particularly at higher levels of education. On average across OECD countries, 35% of primary to secondary teachers were at least 50 years old in 2015, up 3 percentage points from 2005.
    • The profession is still largely dominated by women, who make up seven out of ten teachers on average across OECD countries. However gender parity improves at higher levels of education – while 97% of teachers at the pre-primary level are women, they make up 43% at the tertiary level.
    • Primary and secondary teachers’ salaries are low compared to other similarly educated full-time workers. While salaries increase with the level of education taught, they still range between 78% and 94% of the salaries of full-time workers with tertiary education on average across OECD countries.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are five years old – 78% of three-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education on average across OECD countries.
    • The proportion of children enrolled in private early childhood education programmes is considerably greater than the private enrolment shares at primary and secondary levels. On average, 55% of children in early childhood educational development programmes and 33% in pre-primary programmes attend private institutions.
    • Public expenditure accounts for 83% of all resources allocated for pre-primary education and 71% of funding for early childhood educational development.
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    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that on average across OECD countries, 80% of today’s young people will graduate from upper secondary education before the age of 25.
    • General upper secondary education programmes are more popular than vocational programmes: 57% of 15-19 year-old students are enrolled in general programmes, compared to 43% in vocational programmes.
    • Adults with upper secondary as highest attainment level have lower employment advantages and are least likely to recover from economic downturns that those that have attained tertiary education.
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    • Based on current patterns of graduation, an average of 49% of today’s young people across OECD countries are expected to graduate from tertiary education at least once in their lifetime.
    • People’s relative earning advantage increases with their level of tertiary education. On average across OECD countries, those with a short-cycle tertiary degree earn only about 22% more than those with upper secondary education, while those with a master’s, doctoral or equivalent degree earn about twice as much.
    • Students become more mobile as they reach higher tertiary education levels. International students account for only 5.6% of total enrolment in tertiary programmes, but over a quarter of enrolments at doctoral level across OECD countries.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2017 for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.