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Diagram of the education system



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  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Sweden

    Sweden
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Sweden has one of the highest proportions of tertiary graduates, which leaves less room for upward mobility. On average across OECD countries, 22% of tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds non-students have surpassed their parents' educational attainment in 2012. In contrast, in Sweden, only 15% of young adults are tertiary-educated while their parents were not.
  • The graduation rate at doctoral level is comparatively high in Sweden at 2.7%, compared to the OECD average of 1.7%. Sweden has also the highest expenditure per student at tertiary level on research and development (R&D): USD 11 946 compared to USD 4 846 on average across OECD countries. R&D accounts for more than 50% of total expenditure per tertiary student in Sweden.
  • The earnings advantage of a tertiary education in Sweden is the smallest among OECD countries. Those who have completed tertiary education earn only 25% more on average than someone who reached upper secondary education. On average across OECD countries, the advantage is 60%, while it is 57% for EU21 countries.
  • The proportion of 15-29 year-olds who are neither in employment nor in education or training (NEETs) is relatively low in Sweden at 9.4%, below the EU21 average of 15.6% (the OECD average is 15.5%).
  • Sweden is one of the countries with less gender inequality in earnings among OECD countries. For instance, in terms of earnings for full-time work, 35-44 year-old tertiary-educated women earn 85% of what their male peers earn (the OECD average is 74%).
  • Swedish teachers have a flat salary development in primary and secondary education. While starting salaries are relatively high, they fall behind their counterparts with the same level of educational attainment over time, as a result, starting salaries are slightly above the OECD average, but the maximum salaries are 15- 20% below average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16 %, rank 7/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16 %, rank 6/29 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (2 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (2 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (1 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Sweden, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (80 %, rank 20/28 ) Download Indicator

    The share of graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes who are younger than 25 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctorate or equivalent programme in Sweden ranks as one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 5/40 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Sweden has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (2 %, rank 6/24 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Sweden has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (41 Index, rank 20/23 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Sweden has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (35 Index, rank 17/19 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Sweden has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (26 %, rank 14/16 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Sweden has one of the highest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (62 Index, rank 4/24 ) Download Indicator

    Sweden has one of the highest proportions of female graduates from bachelor's programmes. (69 %, rank 1/34 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among graduates from master's or equivalent programmes is high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (25 %, rank 6/24 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 20-29 year-olds in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35 %, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the number of expected years in formal education (all levels combined) between the ages of 5 and 39 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19 Years, rank 5/39 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in part-time education for 5-39 year-old men in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 Years, rank 4/29 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in part-time education for 5-39 year-old women in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 Years, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58 %, rank 1/28 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Sweden is relatively large. (61 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering doctorate or equivalent programmes in Sweden is relatively large. (43 %, rank 5/22 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (28 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (24 %, rank 13/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (25 %, rank 8/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (20 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (36 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (22 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of women among 25-34 year-old first generation tertiary-educated non-students is quite high compared to other countries. (61 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of male graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (65 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in the humanities and arts from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries . (23 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in agriculture from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (11 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in the humanities and arts from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (7 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in health and welfare from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (7 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the services sector is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (63 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in agriculture from tertiary programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (64 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Sweden is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2262 Hours, rank 33/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (754 Hours, rank 33/34 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Years, rank 7/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (178 Days, rank 25/34 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (178 Days, rank 27/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 Ratio, rank 25/27 ) Download Indicator

    Adult competencies

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds in formal and non-formal education is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (66 %, rank 3/21 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds in formal and non-formal education with low literacy proficiency (below Level 2) is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adults Skills (PIAAC) (42 %, rank 3/21 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (10 %, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (38 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (62 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old adults who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (41 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of adults between the ages of 25 and 34 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (61 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of adults between the ages of 35 and 44 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (50 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of adults between the ages of 45 and 54 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (35 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of adults between the ages of 55 and 64 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (19 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    The share of men among 25-64 year-old adults who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is relatively high compared to other countries. (43 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among 25-64 year-old adults who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is relatively high compared to other countries. (39 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 year-old adults who reported that they are required to complete complex ICT (information and communication technologies) tasks at work, the percentage of adults with good ICT and problem-solving skills is relatively high. (77 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires moderate ICT skills is relatively high. (58 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires straightforward ICT skills is relatively high. (30 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job does not require ICT skills is relatively high. (19 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of human, health and social work is quite high. (34 %, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year old adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among workers in manufacturing jobs is quite high. (41 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22534 USD Equivalent, rank 5/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12742 USD Equivalent, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12212 USD Equivalent, rank 2/28 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10312 USD Equivalent, rank 6/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11177 USD Equivalent, rank 9/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (119 Index, rank 8/28 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 36/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 %, rank 29/35 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (6 %, rank 6/38 ) Download Indicator

    Public expenditure on educational institutions from primary through post-secondary non-tertiary level is one of the highest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89 %, rank 7/35 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (110 Index, rank 18/23 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11946 USD Equivalent, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in government-dependent private institutions for a master's or equivalent level education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 4/6 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in government-dependent private institutions for a bachelor's or equivalent level education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 5/7 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries with available data, Sweden has one of the largest shares of public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions. (97 %, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, public expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1 %, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 Students, rank 26/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Students, rank 34/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary school is especially large. (224 Days, rank 3/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Sweden. (1792 Hours, rank 1/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively low in Sweden. (10 Ratio, rank 15/18 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low in Sweden. (11 Ratio, rank 14/15 ) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels), Sweden has one of the highest percentages of those with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills. (57 %, rank 3/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report that moderate or complex ICT(information and communication technologies) skills are required at work is relatively high. (70 %, rank 10/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report having the computer skills needed to do their job is quite high. (91 %, rank 7/15 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (31 %, rank 28/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (30 %, rank 28/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (16 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers younger than 30 in secondary schools is among the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 29/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (77 %, rank 9/37 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 %, rank 16/16 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 %, rank 18/20 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (74 %, rank 7/28 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36885 USD Equivalent, rank 10/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 8/19 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 10/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 11/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 8/21 ) Download Indicator

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 24/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for primary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Sweden. (109 Index, rank 8/25 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (33383 USD Equivalent, rank 9/29 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 22/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 24/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 24/31 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35290 USD Equivalent, rank 9/21 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38258 USD Equivalent, rank 10/22 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (89 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (66 %, rank 7/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (85 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (58 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (81 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (88 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (6 %, rank 30/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (74 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (39 %, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (55 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (74 %, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (54 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (133 Index, rank 34/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (126 Index, rank 33/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (125 Index, rank 34/34 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83 %, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (81 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (86 %, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short- cycle tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (84 %, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89 %, rank 2/38 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (92 %, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is one the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (6 %, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (86 %, rank 3/29 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (82 %, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (106 Index, rank 19/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (115 Index, rank 20/21 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (151 Index, rank 17/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who report being in good health is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (84 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education reporting that they trust others is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (31 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who believe they have a say in government is among the highest across OECD and partner countries. (43 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Sweden. (12 %, rank 30/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
    Visualisations
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
    Visualisations
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
    Visualisations
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.