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Slovak Republic
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Diagram of the education system



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Key
  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Slovak Republic

    Slovak Republic
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Two out of three adults have a vocational secondary qualification, this is likely to smoothen their transition to the labour market. 67% of 25-64 year-olds have attained an upper secondary or post-secondary vocational qualification (OECD average: 26%). 11.2% of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education are unemployed compared with 12.2% of those with a general education.
  • A relatively large proportion of young people are expected to earn a master's degree. The share of young people who are expected to enter a master's degree or equivalent programme is 39% (OECD average: 22%).
  • Young adults in the Slovak Republic are less likely to exceed their parents' educational attainment: 23% of 25-34 year-olds have surpassed their parents' educational attainment (OECD average: 32%).
  • Despite its benefits for equity and future outcomes, enrolment in early childhood education in the Slovak Republic remains below the OECD average: 63% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education (OECD average: 74%).
  • While total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP remains comparatively low, spending at all levels of education is increasing much faster than the OECD average. In 2012, public and private expenditure on primary to tertiary education amounted to 3.8% of gross domestic product (OECD average: 5.3%). Between 2005 and 2012, boosted by a fall in the student population, expenditure per student on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions increased by 59 percentage points (OECD average: 21 pp).
  • Teachers' salaries are among the lowest of OECD countries and class sizes are small. After 15 years of experience, primary and secondary teachers can expect to earn USD 15 650, the third lowest salary after Hungary and Estonia (OECD average is USD 41 245 for primary, USD 42 825 for lower secondary and USD 44 600 for upper secondary).The average primary and lower secondary class in the Slovak Republic has 18 and 19 students respectively, compared to an OECD average of 21 and 24 students.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 %, rank 4/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 7/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84 %, rank 8/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63 %, rank 3/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70 %, rank 2/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20 %, rank 34/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 32/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67 %, rank 1/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 3/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 3/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93 %, rank 4/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    Slovak Republic has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (16 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    Slovak Republic has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (18 %, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    Slovak Republic has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (1 Index, rank 25/30 ) Download Indicator

    Slovak Republic has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (42 Index, rank 8/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (40 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, the percentage of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (38 %, rank 1/24 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Slovak Republic has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (31 %, rank 1/21 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Slovak Republic has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (2 %, rank 2/24 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Slovak Republic has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education before the age of 30. (2 %, rank 3/21 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Slovak Republic has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (45 Index, rank 16/23 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Slovak Republic has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (43 Index, rank 12/19 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Slovak Republic has one of the highest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (64 Index, rank 2/24 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates from short-cycle tertiary programmes is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (70 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    Slovak Republic has one of the highest proportions of female graduates from bachelor's programmes. (63 %, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    Slovak Republic has one of the highest proportions of female graduates from master's or equivalent programmes. (64 Index, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Slovak Republic has a large share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (51 Index, rank 8/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational or pre-vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68 %, rank 4/38 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Slovak Republic is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (74 %, rank 30/38 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the percentage of young people expected to enter a master's or equivalent programme during their lifetime is relatively high. (39 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young nationals expected to enter a master's or equivalent programme during their lifetime is high compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (37 %, rank 1/22 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of young nationals expected to enter a doctorate or equivalent programme during their lifetime is high compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 4/22 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57 %, rank 5/28 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Slovak Republic is comparatively large. (68 %, rank 3/29 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (23 %, rank 16/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (67 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (9 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (49 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively low. (10 %, rank 18/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (66 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (9 %, rank 3/19 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (47 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (68 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (9 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (50 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults in tertiary education whose parents have attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (98 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female graduates in the services sector from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (33 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in the services sector from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (18 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in social sciences, business and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (68 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (31 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (46 %, rank 9/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    In Slovak Republic, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (819 Hours, rank 22/23 ) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Slovak Republic is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2693 Hours, rank 32/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2693 Hours, rank 23/23 ) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Slovak Republic is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4095 Hours, rank 5/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4095 Hours, rank 4/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6788 Hours, rank 18/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (673 Hours, rank 26/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (673 Hours, rank 20/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (819 Hours, rank 28/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in lower secondary schools. (19 Students, rank 27/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in primary schools. (18 Students, rank 28/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 Years, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Years, rank 7/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 Years, rank 31/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively small in Slovak Republic. (18 Students, rank 30/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively small in Slovak Republic. (17 Students, rank 25/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively small in Slovak Republic. (19 Students, rank 28/32 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Slovak Republic. (18 Students, rank 26/31 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 Ratio, rank 21/27 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires moderate ICT skills is relatively low. (42 %, rank 15/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6072 USD Equivalent, rank 28/37 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4694 USD Equivalent, rank 23/28 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5152 USD Equivalent, rank 29/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (159 Index, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (125 Index, rank 9/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively small. (79 Index, rank 29/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (130 Index, rank 4/28 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (152 Index, rank 5/29 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (9 %, rank 25/32 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 36/38 ) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the change in public expenditure between 2008 and 2012 on primary to tertiary education, including subsidies to households is comparatively large. (117 Index, rank 6/27 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total public expenditure for all services, including education, between 2008 and 2012 is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (113 Index, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (145 Index, rank 6/29 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (175 Index, rank 1/23 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level, excluding subsidies) as a percentage of GDP is among the biggest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (119 Index, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively big, excluding subsidies. (118 Index, rank 4/29 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 Students, rank 23/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Slovak Republic. (832 Hours, rank 10/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively low in Slovak Republic. (9 Ratio, rank 17/18 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low in Slovak Republic. (13 Ratio, rank 11/15 ) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels), Slovak Republic has one of the lowest percentages of those with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills. (34 %, rank 12/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report that moderate or complex ICT(information and communication technologies) skills are required at work is relatively high. (74 %, rank 7/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report having the computer skills needed to do their job is quite high. (93 %, rank 4/15 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of teachers aged between 40 and 49 in secondary schools is especially low. (23 %, rank 32/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90 %, rank 10/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76 %, rank 10/37 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67 %, rank 4/16 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44 %, rank 7/31 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76 %, rank 3/28 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13957 USD Equivalent, rank 29/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13957 USD Equivalent, rank 29/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11437 USD Equivalent, rank 25/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13957 USD Equivalent, rank 29/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 9/19 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 19/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 19/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 19/21 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially low. (11116 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (13351 USD Equivalent, rank 30/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (15050 USD Equivalent, rank 32/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (11116 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (13351 USD Equivalent, rank 30/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (15050 USD Equivalent, rank 32/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (11116 USD Equivalent, rank 33/34 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (13351 USD Equivalent, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (15050 USD Equivalent, rank 31/31 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (9938 USD Equivalent, rank 28/29 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (10936 USD Equivalent, rank 26/27 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (12332 USD Equivalent, rank 26/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23 USD Equivalent, rank 27/28 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 20/26 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Slovak Republic compared to other OECD and partner countries. (32 Years, rank 10/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19 USD Equivalent, rank 29/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24 USD Equivalent, rank 27/30 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14063 USD Equivalent, rank 20/21 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18918 USD Equivalent, rank 20/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18918 USD Equivalent, rank 20/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18859 USD Equivalent, rank 23/24 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (80 %, rank 31/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (33 %, rank 37/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (71 %, rank 28/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (74 %, rank 32/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (56 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (15 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (9 %, rank 8/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (25 %, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (10 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (39 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (11 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (43 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (10 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (35 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (12 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (60 Index, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (6 %, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (11 %, rank 6/29 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (12 %, rank 4/27 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (125 Index, rank 8/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (125 Index, rank 18/21 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (176 Index, rank 12/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Slovak Republic. (28 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with an upper secondary or post-secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Slovak Republic. (22 %, rank 4/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Slovak Republic is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Slovak Republic is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.