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Russian Federation
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Diagram of the education system



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Key
  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Russian Federation

    Russian Federation
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Educational achievement in the Russian Federation is high in terms of the level of tertiary attainment, and more educated individuals are more likely to be employed. The proportion of young individuals aged 25-34 who did not attain upper secondary education is much lower in the Russian Federation (5%) than on average across OECD countries (17%), and about half of young men aged 25-34 have a tertiary education, the second highest proportion after Korea and much higher than the average among OECD countries of about 35%.
  • The employment rate of tertiary graduates aged 25-64 in the Russian Federation was 83% in 2013, close to the OECD average. Tertiary-education graduates were 10 percentage points more likely to be employed than individuals with only upper secondary education, a difference in line with the OECD average, and were 23 percentage points more likely to be employed than individuals with below upper secondary education, a difference slightly larger than the OECD average.
  • Enrolment in early childhood education is relatively low for 4-6 year-olds. Some 79% of 4-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education in the Russian Federation in 2013, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries. This difference is much smaller than it was in 2005, when 55% of 4-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education, compared with 72% on average across OECD countries.
  • Expenditure per student is increasing in the Russian Federation across all levels of education, but as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) it is still comparatively low. The Russian Federation spent 2.3% of its GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions in 2012, about 1.4 percentage points less than the OECD average. Total expenditure on educational institutions at these levels increased by 14% in the Russian Federation over the period 2008-12, more than the three times the increase in the OECD average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 30-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57 %, rank 3/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54 %, rank 1/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58 %, rank 2/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50 %, rank 1/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 3/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 4/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47 %, rank 6/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (54 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (47 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (61 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    Russian Federation has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (29 Index, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (6 Index, rank 34/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (52 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Russian Federation has one of the highest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (59 Index, rank 9/24 ) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation the percentage of young people expected to enter short-cycle tertiary programmes during their lifetimes is comparatively high. (38 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation has one of the highest percentages of students enrolled in public upper secondary institutions. (98 %, rank 2/39 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (26 %, rank 35/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Russian Federation is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4384 Hours, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in lower secondary schools. (18 Students, rank 29/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in primary schools. (18 Students, rank 26/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 Years, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high in Russian Federation. (17 Ratio, rank 5/15 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (172 Index, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (151 Index, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (142 Index, rank 8/29 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (142 Index, rank 4/29 ) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the change in GDP between 2010 and 2012 is comparatively large. (108 Index, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 30/36 ) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (3 %, rank 37/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change in public expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (151 Index, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the biggest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (104 Index, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively big. (113 Index, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 Students, rank 27/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Students, rank 30/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (20 Students, rank 7/39 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Students, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Russian Federation. (561 Hours, rank 32/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Russian Federation. (483 Hours, rank 32/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively small in Russian Federation. (483 Hours, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially large. (210 Days, rank 1/31 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in upper secondary school is especially large. (210 Days, rank 1/31 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99 %, rank 1/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (83 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52 %, rank 2/31 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58 %, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82 %, rank 2/28 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 31/37 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.