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Russian Federation
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Diagram of the education system

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Key

  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in Russian Federation

    Russian Federation
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2018)
  • Based on the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), in 2012, 67% of adults had attained tertiary education in the Russian Federation, compared to the OECD average of 36%. However, children of highly educated parents are still more likely to enter tertiary education than those whose parents do not have a tertiary qualification.
  • The number of international students coming to study in the Russian Federation grew by 80% between 2013 and 2016, one of the largest increases across all OECD and partner countries.
  • Enrolment rates in early childhood education and care (ECEC) services have increased for children aged 3 and above, reaching 83% in 2016, and are also relatively high for 2-year-olds (48% against an OECD average of 45%), but are still low for children under 2 (only 4% compared to an OECD average of 24%).
  • Educational spending in the Russian Federation remains below the OECD average, both in terms of expenditure per student and of share of national wealth, at 3.1% of Russian gross domestic product (GDP), compared to 4.5% on average across OECD countries (primary to tertiary levels of education excluding research and development).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 1/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93.9 %, rank 5/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.1 %, rank 41/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 45/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.1 %, rank 2/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.6 %, rank 4/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.5 %, rank 2/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young people expected to graduate from vocational programmes in upper secondary education in Russian Federation is comparatively high (51.2 %, rank 8/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97.7 %, rank 2/38 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.5 %, rank 4/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.6 %, rank 4/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (25.1 %, rank 2/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 46/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (26.4 %, rank 1/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 32/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (37 %, rank 37/39 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (36 %, rank 2/38 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.4 %, rank 10/32 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 5-14 year-olds in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.1 %, rank 36/43 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the number of expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 is comparatively low. (5.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the number of expected years in education for men between ages 15 and 29 is comparatively low. (5.5 %, rank 37/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the number of expected years in education for women between ages 15 and 29 is comparatively low. (5.8 %, rank 36/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.7 %, rank 34/40 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 25-29 year-olds in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 37/40 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (3 %, rank 30/34 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high. (23.8 %, rank 2/34 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Russian Federation is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 %, rank 4/46 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering doctorate or equivalent programmes in Russian Federation is relatively small. (7.4 %, rank 30/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (5.5 %, rank 33/39 , 2016) Download Indicator

    School climate

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.41 Ratio, rank 16/21 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (21.04 Ratio, rank 6/43 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8369 USD Equivalent, rank 33/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5409 USD Equivalent, rank 31/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core and ancillary services, from primary to below-tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4473 USD Equivalent, rank 32/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student for core services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7527 USD Equivalent, rank 23/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (842 USD Equivalent, rank 32/34 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1 %, rank 4/33 , 2014) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core and ancillary services, from primary to tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5409 USD Equivalent, rank 31/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core, ancillary services and research and development, from tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8369 USD Equivalent, rank 33/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, total public expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (90.4 %, rank 8/31 , 2014) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Russian Federation, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies. (3.1 %, rank 37/37 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1.1 %, rank 30/37 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, government expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (1.8 %, rank 39/39 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, government expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.7 %, rank 30/39 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, government expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.6 %, rank 39/39 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education is comparatively low. (79.4 %, rank 27/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for primary to tertiary education is comparatively low. (92.1 %, rank 22/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 27/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (2.6 %, rank 39/39 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 31/39 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 Index, rank 18/27 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation has one of the largest shares of public expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (95 %, rank 8/37 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (7.5 %, rank 36/39 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.4 %, rank 5/39 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.9 %, rank 1/43 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.7 %, rank 3/39 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58.6 %, rank 1/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (83.1 %, rank 2/31 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (81.3 %, rank 36/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (51.1 %, rank 35/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (13.3 %, rank 9/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (67.6 %, rank 33/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively high in Russian Federation. (94.1 %, rank 3/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Governance

    The percentage of decisions taken at the central level of government for public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (41.7 %, rank 10/34 , 2017) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • Adults without tertiary-educated parents face greater challenges to attain tertiary level themselves: Only 21% do compared to 68% among those with at least one tertiary-educated parent.
    • While there is little difference on average between the level of tertiary attainment among native-born and foreign-born adults, there are large variations across countries. In Mexico the tertiary attainment of foreign-born adults is more than double that of native-born. In contrast, native-born adults in Slovenia are almost twice more likely to have attained tertiary education than their foreign-born peers.
    • The gender gap favors girls in education but men in the labour market: 50% of 25-34 year-old women attained tertiary education in 2017 compared to 38% of men. However the employment rate of tertiary-educated young women is about 9 percentage points less than for men and they earn only 74% as much as men with similar educational attainment on average across OECD countries.
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    • In 2015, OECD countries spent on average around 5% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions from primary to tertiary levels , with variations across countries from 3.1% in the Russian Federation to 6.4% in Norway.
    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 391 a year on educational institutions to educate each student from primary to tertiary education. This represents about USD 8 600 per student at primary level, USD 9 900 at secondary level and USD 15 500 at tertiary level.
    • Primary and secondary education accounts for almost 70% of total expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions, or around 3.5% of GDP, on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2015, public funding represented more than 80% of total expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions across the OECD countries, varying from 62% in Colombia to 99% in Norway. However only two thirds of total expenditure is financed through public sources on tertiary institutions on average across OECD countries.
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    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • While the teaching profession is dominated by women, the share of female teachers decreases with the level of education taught: almost all teachers at the pre-primary level are women; however they make up less than half of the teaching force at tertiary level.
    • On average across OECD countries, statutory salaries of teachers at the top of their salary scales (and maximum qualifications) are between 77% and 81% higher than starting salaries (with minimum qualifications).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 82% to 96% of earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries.
    • While the average actual salary of primary and secondary female teachers is equal to or higher than the average earnings of full-time, tertiary-educated working women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 77% and 88% of the average earnings of full-time, tertiary-educated working men.
    • Based on official regulations, public school teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 1 030 hours per year at pre-primary level, 771 hours at primary level, 693 hours at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 646 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • On average across OECD countries, there are 15 students per teacher in primary education, 13 students per teacher in secondary education and 15 students per teacher in tertiary education.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 75% of children aged 3 are enrolled in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC).
    • At age 4, on average across OECD countries, almost 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary education.
    • Annual expenditure per child in early childhood development programmes was greater than in pre-primary education in 2015 on average across OECD countries.
    • Public funds represent a higher share of total expenditure at pre-primary level than on early childhood development programmes.
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    • The share of first-time upper secondary graduates with a vocational qualification varied from 6% in Canada to 78% in Austria in 2016 with an average of 41% across OECD countries.
    • In 2016, across OECD countries, teaching hours for upper secondary, general programmes vary greatly from 405 hours in Denmark to 1064 hours in Chile with an average of 655 hours.
    • In 2016, the ratio of students to teaching staff in public upper secondary educational institutions across OECD countries varies from 9 in Portugal to 22 in Mexico with an average of 13 across OECD countries.
    • The employment rate for adults with upper secondary education is 18 percentage points higher than for those without. The employment advantage varies from 6 percentage points in Mexico to more than 30 percentage points in the Czech and Slovak Republics.
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    • Between 2007 and 2017, the share of tertiary-educated young adults increased by 10 percentage points on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2015, OECD countries spent on average around 1.5% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on tertiary educational institutions, ranging from 0.5% in Luxembourg to 2.6% in the United States.
    • On average in OECD countries, 59% of young adults will enter a bachelor's degree or equivalent programme in their lifetime while 24% are expected to enter a master's or equivalent programme.
    • While there are large variations across countries, international and foreign students account for 6% of total enrolment in tertiary programmes and reach more than a quarter of enrolments at doctoral level on average across OECD countries.
    • Tertiary-educated adults are more likely to be employed and earn about 55% more than those with upper secondary education on average across OECD countries.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Russian Federation

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2017 for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.