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Poland
Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Poland has experienced a high increase in attainment at upper secondary and tertiary levels over the last eight years. First-time graduation rates at the upper secondary level increased from 41% to 86% between 2005 and 2013. Higher educational attainment in Poland results in better employability and a higher level of income, particularly at the tertiary level. 87% of people who completed masters are employed and 93% for those with doctoral education.
  • Poland achieves high levels of intergenerational educational mobility and low levels of downward mobility: 7% of people attained lower educational qualifications than their parents (OECD average: 16%) and 36% attained higher qualifications (OECD average: 32%).
  • Poland spends a comparatively low share of its gross domestic product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions: 4.8% of GDP (OECD average: 5.3%). The majority of educational expenditure on primary, secondary and tertiary institutions comes from public sources, 88.1% (OECD average: 83.5%), although the share of private funds at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level has more than doubled between 2000 and 2012. Annual expenditure per student is USD 9 799 per student (OECD average: USD 15 028).
  • Poland is making efforts to make the teaching profession more attractive, by increasing salaries and maintaining small class sizes. Although teachers' statutory salaries remain one of the lowest among OECD countries, between 2000 and 2013, they increased by 22% at all education levels (OECD average: 3% at pre-primary and primary level, 2% at lower secondary level and 1% at upper secondary level) and teachers salary in primary and lower secondary education is 85% and 86% of the salary of a full-time full-year worker with tertiary education, respectively, above the OECD average (80% and 86% respectively). Class sizes are rather small, 22 students per class in lower secondary education and 18 students in primary schools.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.5 %, rank 5/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94.2 %, rank 4/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84.2 %, rank 10/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.5 %, rank 3/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.7 %, rank 33/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.1 %, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61.5 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.8 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.4 %, rank 4/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.6 %, rank 5/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.3 %, rank 5/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.6 %, rank 6/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.8 %, rank 3/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.9 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    Poland has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (20.7 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    Poland has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (16.1 %, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    Poland has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (25.2 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    Poland has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (1 Index, rank 27/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates from short-cycle tertiary programmes is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (84.1 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Poland has a large share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (55 Index, rank 3/40 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.1 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.3 %, rank 28/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.4 %, rank 33/38 ) Download Indicator

    In Poland the percentage of young people expected to enter bachelor's or equivalent programmes during their lifetimes is comparatively high. (72.6 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in part-time education for 5-39 year-old men in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.8 Years, rank 5/29 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in part-time education for 5-39 year-old women in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 Years, rank 5/29 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28 %, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young nationals expected to enter a short-cycle tertiary programme during their lifetime is comparatively low in Poland. (0.6 %, rank 15/16 ) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of young people expected to enter a master's or equivalent programme during their lifetime is relatively high. (45.7 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Poland is comparatively large. (80.6 %, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Poland is one of the highest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (65.3 %, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students younger than 30-years-old entering master's or equivalent programmes in Poland is comparatively high. (88.2 %, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students younger than 30-years-old entering doctorate or equivalent programmes in Poland is relatively high. (85 %, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young people expected to enter tertiary education during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79.4 %, rank 5/27 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (36.3 %, rank 8/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (56.8 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (41 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively low. (14.2 %, rank 15/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (36.9 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (62.1 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (45.1 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults in tertiary education whose parents have attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (95.4 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of male graduates in sciences from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (13.7 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in the services sector from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (51 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    The percentage of 25-64 year old adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among workers in manufacturing jobs is quite low. (17.8 %, rank 16/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (162 Index, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively small. (77 Index, rank 30/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (128 Index, rank 5/28 ) Download Indicator

    The change in private expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (538 Index, rank 1/22 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (93 Index, rank 21/23 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in GDP is comparatively big. (106 Index, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the smallest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (94 Index, rank 21/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16 Students, rank 10/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (11 Students, rank 34/39 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Students, rank 29/37 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21773 USD Equivalent, rank 26/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24921 USD Equivalent, rank 25/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19102 USD Equivalent, rank 21/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19102 USD Equivalent, rank 26/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.85 Ratio, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.86 Ratio, rank 8/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.84 Ratio, rank 12/21 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for primary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Poland. (122 Index, rank 4/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Poland. (122 Index, rank 2/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2003 and 2013 in statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Poland. (122 Index, rank 2/24 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Poland. (629 Hours, rank 26/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Poland. (555 Hours, rank 30/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively small in Poland. (551 Hours, rank 23/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary school is especially large. (216 Days, rank 6/28 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (45.3 %, rank 10/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (40.9 %, rank 10/34 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 39 in secondary schools is especially high. (34.1 %, rank 5/35 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (15220 USD Equivalent, rank 28/34 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (20402 USD Equivalent, rank 26/32 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (25980 USD Equivalent, rank 26/31 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (11948 USD Equivalent, rank 25/29 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (15735 USD Equivalent, rank 22/27 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (19908 USD Equivalent, rank 22/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52 USD Equivalent, rank 21/28 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.71 Ratio, rank 10/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 USD Equivalent, rank 20/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51 USD Equivalent, rank 22/30 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25681 USD Equivalent, rank 16/21 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29434 USD Equivalent, rank 15/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29912 USD Equivalent, rank 15/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29252 USD Equivalent, rank 18/24 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.2 %, rank 10/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65.4 %, rank 5/16 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.9 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.7 %, rank 8/28 ) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels), Poland has one of the lowest percentages of those with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills. (25 %, rank 15/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report that moderate or complex ICT(information and communication technologies) skills are required at work is relatively low. (50 %, rank 15/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report having the computer skills needed to do their job is quite low. (85.3 %, rank 11/15 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Classes are particularly small in primary schools. (18 Students, rank 24/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (86.2 %, rank 9/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (39.2 %, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (66.2 %, rank 34/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively high. (90.7 %, rank 9/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (11.7 %, rank 9/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (17.8 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (86 Index, rank 5/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (84 Index, rank 5/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite high. (187 Index, rank 9/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (60 Index, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in sciences and engineering is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50.8 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who report that they volunteer at least once a month is one of the lowest among other countries with available data. (5.7 %, rank 19/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.5 %, rank 31/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.
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