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Netherlands
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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

Education system in Netherlands

Netherlands
Student performance (PISA 2012)
  • In Netherlands, the average performance in reading of 15-year-olds is 511 points, compared to an average of 496 points in OECD countries. Girls perform better than boys with a statistically significant difference of 26 points (OECD average: 38 points higher for girls).
  • On average, 15-year-olds score 523 points in mathematics, the main topic of PISA 2012, compared to an average of 494 points in OECD countries. Boys perform better than girls with a statistically significant difference of 10 points (OECD average: 11 points higher for boys).
  • In science literacy, 15-year-olds in Netherlands score 522 points compared to an average of 501 points in OECD countries. Boys perform better than girls with a non statistically significant difference of 3 points (OECD average: only 1 point higher for boys).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The percentage of students who had attended pre-primary education (ISCED 0) for one year or less is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (3 %, rank 63/64 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students who had attended pre-primary education (ISCED 0) for more than one year is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (95 %, rank 4/64 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of students attending government or public schools is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (34 %, rank 61/63 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students attending government-dependent private schools is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (66 %, rank 3/63 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students attending government-independent private schools is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 54/63 ) Download Indicator

    Student performance in mathematics

    The mean score in mathematics performance is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (523 PISA Score, rank 10/64 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing girls in mathematics (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (17 %, rank 10/64 ) Download Indicator

    Student performance in science

    The percentage of top performers in science (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (12 %, rank 10/64 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing girls in science (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (11 %, rank 10/64 ) Download Indicator

    Student performance in problem solving

    The score difference in problem-solving between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (256 PISA Score, rank 8/42 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to the share of top-performing girls, the share of top-performing boys is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (1 Relative risk, rank 33/42 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in socio-economically advantaged schools is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (18 Ratio, rank 10/61 ) Download Indicator

    Students' engagement, drive and self-beliefs

    The difference in mathematics performance that is associated with students' perseverance in mathematics is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (7 PISA Score, rank 57/63 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students who report feeling confident doing a range of pure and applied mathematical tasks involving some algebra is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 PISA Index, rank 29/38 ) Download Indicator

    After adjusting for existing differences in mathematics performance, the difference between boys and girls in their openness to problem solving is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 PISA Index, rank 9/64 ) Download Indicator

    After-school activities

    (-31 % points, rank 59/60 ) Download Indicator

    Access to ICT

    Netherlands has one the the largest percentages of 15 year-old students browsing the Internet for schoolwork at school at least once a week. (68 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    Netherlands has one the the largest percentages of 15 year-old students browsing the Internet for schoolwork outside of school at least once a week. (66 %, rank 9/42 ) Download Indicator

    Performance and socio-economic status

    The difference in mathematics performance, between schools, associated with a one-unit increase in the mean PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (147 PISA Score, rank 2/62 ) Download Indicator

    The variation in mathematics performance associated with the socio-economic status of students, as measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) decreased strongly between 2003 and 2012, compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies. (-7 %, rank 36/39 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in high-performing, socio-economically disadvantaged schools is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 54/61 ) Download Indicator

    The index of social inclusion (calculated as 100 × [1-rho], where rho stands for the intra-class correlation of socio-economic status) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (82 PISA Index, rank 9/62 ) Download Indicator

    The difference between the socio-economic status of students who had attended pre-primary education (ISCED 0) for more than one year and those who had not is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 PISA Index, rank 54/61 ) Download Indicator

    Governance

    Schools are comparatively more responsible for curriculum and assessment than in other PISA-participating countries and economies. (1 PISA Index, rank 3/64 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in schools whose principals and/or teachers have considerable responsibility in establishing student assessment policies is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (95 %, rank 2/64 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in schools whose principals and/or teachers have considerable responsibility in choosing which textbooks are used is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (93 %, rank 4/64 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in schools whose principals and/or teachers have considerable responsibility in determining course content is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (91 %, rank 1/64 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in schools whose principals and/or teachers have considerable responsibility in deciding which courses are offered is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (75 %, rank 3/64 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • Shanghai-China and Singapore have the highest scores in mathematics, with mean scores of 613 points and 573, respectively - more than 79 points above the OECD average, or the equivalent of nearly 2 years of schooling or more. Hong Kong-China, Chinese Taipei and Korea are the next three highest-performing countries and economies.
    • On average across OECD countries, 12.6% of students are top performers in mathematics, meaning that they are proficient at Level 5 or 6.
    • Boys perform better than girls in mathematics in 38 out of the 65 countries and economies that participated in PISA 2012, and girls outperform boys in 5 countries.
    • Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Singapore, Japan and Korea are the five highest-performing countries and economies in reading.
    • Across OECD countries, 8.4% of students are top performers in reading, meaning that they are proficient at Level 5 or 6. Shanghai-China has the largest proportion of top performers.
    • Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Singapore, Japan and Finland are the top five performers in science in PISA 2012.
    • Across OECD countries, 8.4% of students are top performers in science and score at proficiency Level 5 or 6.
    • Across OECD countries, boys and girls perform at similar levels in science.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
      PISA defines equity in education as providing all students, regardless of gender, family background or socio-economic status, with opportunities to benefit from education. Defined in this way, equity does not imply that everyone should have the same results. It does mean, however, that students' socio-economic status or the fact that they have an immigrant background has little or no impact on their performance, and that all students, regardless of their background, are offered access to quality educational resources and opportunities to learn.

    • Across OECD countries, a more socio-economically advantaged student scores 39 points higher in mathematics - the equivalent of nearly one year of schooling - than a less-advantaged student.
    • Of the 39 countries and economies that participated in both PISA 2003 and PISA 2012, Mexico, Turkey and Germany improved both their mathematics performance and their levels of equity in education during the period.
    • Australia, Canada, Estonia, Finland, Hong Kong-China, Japan, Korea, Liechtenstein, Macao-China and the Netherlands achieve high levels of performance and equity in education opportunities as assessed in PISA 2012.
    • The concentration of immigrant students in a school is not, in itself, associated with poor performance.
    • Across OECD countries, students who reported that they had attended pre-primary school for more than one year score 53 points higher in mathematics - the equivalent of over one year of schooling - than students who had not attended pre-primary education.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
      Students' engagement, drive and self-beliefs not only play a central role in shaping students' ability to master academic subjects, they are also valuable attributes that will enable students to lead full lives, meeting challenges and making the most of available opportunities along the way. In other words, much more is required of students - and adults - than just cognitive proficiency.

    • Four out of five students in OECD countries agree or strongly agree that they feel happy at school or that they feel like they belong at school.
    • Although the vast majority of students reported a strong sense of belonging, more than one in three students in OECD countries reported that they had arrived late for school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test; and more than one in four students reported that they had skipped classes or days of school during the same period.
    • Students who are more perseverant and more open to problem solving perform at higher levels in mathematics.
    • Across most countries and economies, socio-economically disadvantaged students not only score lower in mathematics, they also have lower levels of engagement, drive, motivation and self-beliefs. Resilient students, i.e. disadvantaged students who achieve at high levels, break this pattern.
    • PISA results show that even when girls perform as well as boys in mathematics, they report less openness to problem solving than boys, on average.
    • Teacher-student relations are strongly associated with students' engagement with and at school.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
      Resources, policies and practices are related to education outcomes. As in other organisations, decisions taken at one level in a school system are affected by decisions taken at other levels. For example, what happens in the classroom is influenced by decisions taken at the school level; and decisions taken at the school level are affected by the decisions taken by district, regional and/or national education administrations - particularly those concerning resources, policies and practices.

    • Stratification in school systems, which is the result of policies like grade repetition and selecting students at a young age for different programmes or "tracks", is negatively related to equity; and students in highly stratified systems tend to be less motivated than those in less-stratified systems.
    • How resources are allocated in education is just as important as the amount of resources available to be allocated.
    • High-performing countries and economies tend to allocate resources more equitably across socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged schools.
    • Students in 2012 were more likely than their counterparts in 2003 to have attended at least one year of pre-primary education.
    • In 37 participating countries and economies, students who attend private schools (either government-dependent or government-independent schools) are more socio-economically advantaged than those who attend public schools.
    • Schools in high-performing systems tend to have more responsibility over curricula and assessments.
    • Between 2003 and 2012 there was a clear trend towards schools using student assessments to compare the school's performance with district or national performance and with that of other schools.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
      In modern societies, all of life is problem solving. Changes in society, the environment, and in technology mean that the content of applicable knowledge evolves rapidly. Adapting, learning, daring to try out new things and always being ready to learn from mistakes are among the keys to resilience and success in an unpredictable world.

    • Students in Hong Kong-China, Korea, Macao-China, Shanghai-China, Singapore and Chinese Taipei perform strongest on problems that require understanding, formulating or representing new knowledge, compared to other types of problems.
    • In Malaysia, Shanghai-China and Turkey, more than one in eight students attend a vocational study programme, and these students show significantly better performance in problem solving, on average, than students with comparable performance in mathematics, reading and science but who are in general study programmes.
    • Boys outperform girls in problem solving in 23 countries/economies, girls outperform boys in five countries/economies, and in 16 countries/economies, there is no significant difference in average performance between boys and girls.
    • The impact of socio-economic status on problem-solving performance is weaker than it is on performance in mathematics, reading or science.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
      Finance is a part of everyday life for many 15-year-olds: many are already consumers of financial services such as bank accounts. As they near the end of compulsory education, students will also face complex and challenging financial choices, such as deciding whether to continue with formal education.

    • Shanghai-China has the highest average score in financial literacy, followed by Estonia, Australia, New Zealand, the Czech Republic and Poland.
    • Only one in ten students across participating OECD countries and economies is able to tackle the hardest financial literacy tasks in PISA 2012.
    • Students in some countries that perform well in financial literacy, such as Australia, the Czech Republic, Estonia and New Zealand, score higher in financial literacy, on average, than their performance in mathematics and reading would predict.
    • A more socio-economically advantaged student scores 41 points higher in financial literacy than a less-advantaged student, on average across participating OECD countries and economies.
    • In contrast with performance in mathematics and reading, in 17 out of the 18 participating countries and economies, there are no gender differences in average financial literacy scores. The exception is Italy, where boys slightly outperform girls.
    • Students' attitudes towards learning, such as perseverance and openness to problem solving, are positively associated with financial literacy.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.