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Netherlands
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Diagram of the education system



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Key
  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Netherlands

    Netherlands
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • In the Netherlands, early childhood education is highly accessible with almost 100% enrolment among 4-year-olds.
  • The average compulsory instruction time in primary education in the Netherlands is 940 hours a year, compared to 804 hours on average in OECD countries. The compulsory instruction time in lower secondary education increased to 1 000 hours a year, where the OECD average is only 916 hours a year.
  • The amount of funding from private sources in tertiary education in the Netherlands increased substantially from 2008 to 2012, by 17% (the OECD average is 8%). In the Netherlands, households account for 16% of funding for tertiary institutions, compared to 22% on average in OECD countries, but just above the EU21 average of 14%.
  • Tertiary-educated women aged 35-44 working full-time, earn 83% of the average earnings of their male counterparts with the same educational attainment and employment status. However, this disparity is among the smallest in OECD countries, where on average the share is 74%.
  • The employment rate for adults (25-64 year-olds) in the Netherlands is 4 percentage points higher than the average for all OECD countries. Upper secondary-educated adults enjoy employment rates of almost 80%. In contrast less than two-thirds of those with below upper secondary education are in employment.
  • In pre-primary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education, teachers' salaries at all stages of their career are substantially higher than OECD averages in the Netherlands. For example, annual salaries after 10 years of experience are USD 7 000 to USD 16 000 higher than the OECD average.
  • The teaching workforce across the Netherlands is ageing with high percentages of teachers over 50 years old. In upper secondary education, about one half of all teachers in the Netherlands are over 50 years old, compared with more than one-third on average in OECD countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Participation in education

    The percentage of young people expected to graduate from vocational programmes in upper secondary education in Netherlands is comparatively high (77 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    Netherlands has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (1 Index, rank 26/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Netherlands has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (35 Index, rank 3/22 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Netherlands has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (1 %, rank 15/24 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Netherlands has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (45 Index, rank 17/23 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Netherlands has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (38 Index, rank 16/19 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Netherlands has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (35 %, rank 11/16 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Netherlands has one of the lowest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (57 Index, rank 15/24 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the highest among countries with available data. (92 %, rank 1/21 ) Download Indicator

    A large share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes in Netherlands compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (15 %, rank 4/19 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among graduates from bachelor's or equivalent programmes is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (10 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes is high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (40 Index, rank 6/24 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational or pre-vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67 %, rank 5/38 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 4/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-old men in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-old women in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in full-time education for 5-39 year-old men in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18 Years, rank 4/35 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in full-time education for 5-39 year-old women in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18 Years, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in part-time education for 5-39 year-old women in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 Years, rank 24/29 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-years-old adults who enter tertiary education in Netherlands is relatively high. (91 %, rank 5/26 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international students entering tertiary education in Netherlands is relatively high. (16 %, rank 6/18 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students younger than 30-years-old entering master's or equivalent programmes in Netherlands is comparatively high. (94 %, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students younger than 30-years-old entering doctorate or equivalent programmes in Netherlands is relatively high. (86 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international or foreign students enrolled in doctorate programmes in Netherlands is comparatively large. (38 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young nationals expected to enter bachelor's or equivalent programmes before turning 25-years-old is among the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (51 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (38 %, rank 7/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (10 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (20 %, rank 10/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (7 %, rank 6/19 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (33 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (12 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults in tertiary education whose parents had not attained upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (48 %, rank 2/19 ) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of men among 25-34 year-old first generation tertiary-educated non-students is quite high compared to other countries. (44 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female graduates in health and welfare from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (48 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in the services sector from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (25 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (28 %, rank 33/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Netherlands is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5640 Hours, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Years, rank 7/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Adult competencies

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds in formal and non-formal education without upper secondary education is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adults Skills (PIAAC) (42 %, rank 3/21 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (13 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (38 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (64 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old adults who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (40 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of adults between the ages of 25 and 34 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (59 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of adults between the ages of 35 and 44 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (51 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of adults between the ages of 45 and 54 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (33 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of adults between the ages of 55 and 64 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (18 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    The share of men among 25-64 year-old adults who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is relatively high compared to other countries. (44 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among 25-64 year-old adults who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is relatively high compared to other countries. (35 %, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 year-old adults who reported that they are required to complete complex ICT (information and communication technologies) tasks at work, the percentage of adults with good ICT and problem-solving skills is relatively high. (69 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires moderate ICT skills is relatively high. (58 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires straightforward ICT skills is relatively high. (26 %, rank 9/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job does not require ICT skills is relatively high. (13 %, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of education is quite high. (57 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of human, health and social work is quite high. (38 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year old adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among workers in manufacturing jobs is quite high. (38 %, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12211 USD Equivalent, rank 7/37 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12296 USD Equivalent, rank 6/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12227 USD Equivalent, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student for core services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12505 USD Equivalent, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (135 Index, rank 8/23 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level, excluding subsidies) as a percentage of GDP is among the biggest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (111 Index, rank 6/29 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level is especially high. (19 Students, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17 Students, rank 8/37 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Netherlands. (930 Hours, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Netherlands. (750 Hours, rank 9/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively large in Netherlands. (750 Hours, rank 7/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary school is especially large. (195 Days, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively high in Netherlands. (15 Ratio, rank 10/18 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high in Netherlands. (20 Ratio, rank 3/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report having the computer skills needed to do their job is quite high. (91 %, rank 6/15 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (12 %, rank 7/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 39 in secondary schools is especially low. (21 %, rank 29/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 40 and 49 in secondary schools is especially low. (21 %, rank 33/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86 %, rank 35/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51 %, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51 %, rank 29/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51 %, rank 13/16 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66831 USD Equivalent, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66831 USD Equivalent, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54001 USD Equivalent, rank 3/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54001 USD Equivalent, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 14/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 9/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 10/21 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (36456 USD Equivalent, rank 8/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (45228 USD Equivalent, rank 9/33 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (38473 USD Equivalent, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (55697 USD Equivalent, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (66831 USD Equivalent, rank 5/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (38473 USD Equivalent, rank 8/34 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (55697 USD Equivalent, rank 5/32 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (66831 USD Equivalent, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (36456 USD Equivalent, rank 6/29 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (45228 USD Equivalent, rank 6/27 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (54001 USD Equivalent, rank 7/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89 USD Equivalent, rank 6/28 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers less time to progress through the salary scale in Netherlands compared to other OECD and partner countries. (13 Years, rank 25/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89 USD Equivalent, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49533 USD Equivalent, rank 5/21 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49533 USD Equivalent, rank 7/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61078 USD Equivalent, rank 4/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61078 USD Equivalent, rank 6/24 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (88 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (78 %, rank 9/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (85 %, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 29/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (5 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (27 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who report that they volunteer at least once a month is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (28 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education reporting that they trust others is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (30 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who believe they have a say in government is among the highest across OECD and partner countries. (36 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Netherlands. (10 %, rank 32/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 %, rank 33/37 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.