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Luxembourg
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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

Education system in Luxembourg

Luxembourg
Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Lower secondary teachers earn almost twice as much as their counterparts in other OECD countries. Teachers' salaries are also high compared to the earnings of other tertiary-educated workers. Lower and upper secondary teachers earn, on average, 23% more than other tertiary-educated workers of a similar age and education level.
  • Between 2000 and 2013, pre-primary and primary teachers' salaries increased by 40%, compared to the OECD average increase of 3%. At the secondary level, salaries increased by 15% in the same time period, compared to an average 2% increase across OECD countries.
  • Classes in Luxembourg are generally smaller than those in other OECD countries. In public institutions, the average class has 15 pupils at primary and 19 students at lower secondary levels, compared to the OECD averages of 21pupils and 24 students, respectively.
  • Tertiary attainment in Luxembourg is among the highest across all OECD countries for 25-34 year-olds (53%, compared to the OECD average of 41%).
  • Luxembourg spends less than other OECD countries on educational institutions as a share of GDP. In 2012, Luxembourg spent 3.7% of its GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education, below the OECD average of 5.3% of GDP. Some 97% of expenditure on educational institutions in Luxembourg comes from public sources compared with the OECD average of 83%. Private funding for tertiary education in Luxembourg is only one-sixth the average share across OECD countries.
  • The employment rate of 25-64 year-old women in Luxembourg is 14 percentage points below the employment rate of men, and women also earn less than their male counterparts. In contrast to most OECD countries, the earnings gap widened between 2005 and 2013 in Luxembourg. The earnings of women with below upper secondary education fell by 23 percentage points during that period.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of tertiary attainment among 30-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53 %, rank 5/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46 %, rank 4/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53 %, rank 4/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32 %, rank 9/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44 %, rank 5/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38 %, rank 6/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58 %, rank 5/42 ) Download Indicator

    Luxembourg has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (20 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    Luxembourg has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (22 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    Luxembourg has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (18 %, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (2 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73 %, rank 24/28 ) Download Indicator

    Luxembourg has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (2 Index, rank 24/30 ) Download Indicator

    Luxembourg has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (9 Index, rank 33/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (5 %, rank 27/33 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Luxembourg has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (0 %, rank 24/24 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Luxembourg has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (16 Index, rank 23/23 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Luxembourg has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (10 Index, rank 19/19 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Luxembourg has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (9 %, rank 16/16 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Luxembourg has one of the lowest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (55 Index, rank 20/24 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the highest among countries with available data. (86 %, rank 6/21 ) Download Indicator

    A large share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes in Luxembourg compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (40 %, rank 2/19 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Luxembourg has a small share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (39 Index, rank 36/40 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Luxembourg has a large share of international students among graduates from short-cycle tertiary programmes. (46 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among graduates from bachelor's or equivalent programmes is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (21 %, rank 2/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among graduates from master's or equivalent programmes is high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (71 %, rank 1/24 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes is high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (81 Index, rank 1/24 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99 %, rank 5/38 ) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of international students enrolled in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-olds in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-old men in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-old women in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in full-time education for 5-39 year-old men in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15 Years, rank 30/35 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in full-time education for 5-39 year-old women in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15 Years, rank 29/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international students entering tertiary education in Luxembourg is relatively high. (41 %, rank 1/18 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international students entering bachelor's programmes is relatively high. (25 %, rank 1/22 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Luxembourg is comparatively large. (65 %, rank 4/29 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students younger than 25-year-old entering short-cycle tertiary programmes is relatively high. (90 %, rank 3/26 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 %, rank 5/14 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Luxembourg is relatively large. (66 %, rank 1/22 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering doctorate or equivalent programmes in Luxembourg is relatively large. (91 %, rank 1/22 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international or foreign students enrolled in doctorate programmes in Luxembourg is comparatively large. (84 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international or foreign students enrolled in masters programmes in Luxembourg is comparatively large. (67 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes in Luxembourg is comparatively large. (24 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female graduates in social sciences, business and law from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (49 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in social sciences, business and law from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (26 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    In Luxembourg, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5544 Hours, rank 6/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (924 Hours, rank 6/23 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in lower secondary schools. (19 Students, rank 28/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in primary schools. (15 Students, rank 32/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32876 USD Equivalent, rank 1/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22545 USD Equivalent, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19719 USD Equivalent, rank 1/28 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20020 USD Equivalent, rank 1/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20617 USD Equivalent, rank 1/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20247 USD Equivalent, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core and ancillary services, from primary to below-tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20153 USD Equivalent, rank 1/39 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student for core services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21358 USD Equivalent, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 33/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 %, rank 32/35 ) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (8 %, rank 29/32 ) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 33/38 ) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively high. (11674 USD Equivalent, rank 1/26 ) Download Indicator

    Public expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (99 %, rank 1/26 ) Download Indicator

    Public expenditure on educational institutions from primary through post-secondary non-tertiary level is one of the highest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (98 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 %, rank 4/35 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11519 USD Equivalent, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries with available data, Luxembourg has one of the largest shares of public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions. (97 %, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 Students, rank 26/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (9 Students, rank 39/39 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Students, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively large in Luxembourg. (739 Hours, rank 9/32 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (58 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (61 %, rank 3/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (48 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (4 %, rank 27/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 39 in secondary schools is especially high. (33 %, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (110243 USD Equivalent, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (110243 USD Equivalent, rank 1/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (102956 USD Equivalent, rank 1/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (102956 USD Equivalent, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 1/19 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 1/21 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for primary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Luxembourg. (140 Index, rank 1/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Luxembourg. (115 Index, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2003 and 2013 in statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Luxembourg. (115 Index, rank 4/24 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (68873 USD Equivalent, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (91203 USD Equivalent, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (123406 USD Equivalent, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (79920 USD Equivalent, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (99900 USD Equivalent, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (138920 USD Equivalent, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (79920 USD Equivalent, rank 1/34 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (99900 USD Equivalent, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (138920 USD Equivalent, rank 1/31 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (68873 USD Equivalent, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (91203 USD Equivalent, rank 1/27 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (123406 USD Equivalent, rank 1/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (149 USD Equivalent, rank 1/28 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (127 USD Equivalent, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (149 USD Equivalent, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96140 USD Equivalent, rank 1/21 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96140 USD Equivalent, rank 1/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (109420 USD Equivalent, rank 1/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (109420 USD Equivalent, rank 1/24 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (78 %, rank 4/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (89 %, rank 2/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (90 %, rank 2/25 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83 %, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in the fields of education, humanities and social sciences is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (49 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88 %, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Luxembourg. (9 %, rank 36/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.