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Diagram of the education system



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  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Korea

    Korea
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • The coverage of early childhood education and care in Korea is greater than OECD and partner countries and students in Korea tend to begin their initial education earlier. More than 90% of 3 year-olds were enrolled in pre-primary education in 2013, compared with the OECD average of 72%.
  • As with its neighboring countries, Korean classes are generally large. The average primary school class has 24 students, compared with 21 on average for OECD and partner countries. Classes are particularly large in lower secondary schools, averaging 33 students, compared with the OECD average of 24.
  • Almost all young Korean adults have an upper secondary qualification: 98% of 25-34 year-olds in 2014, the highest rate among OECD and partner countries.
  • In spite of increasing focus on vocational schools in Korea, most students attend general upper secondary schools. Just 18% of 15-19 year-olds attend vocational upper secondary schools, which is very low compared to the OECD average of 41%.
  • The level of tertiary attainment in Korea is high due to the country's strong zeal for education. About 45% of Korean adults (25-64 year-olds) have a tertiary qualification which is above the OECD average of 33%. Among 25-34 year-olds, the tertiary attainment rate is the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data, at 68%.
  • Including funds from both public and private sources, Korea spent 6.7% of gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions from primary to tertiary levels, against the OECD average of 5.3%.
  • The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is 71%, the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. This is related to the high proportion of students in independent private tertiary institutions: 75% of students are enrolled in private tertiary educational institutions in Korea.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.3 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 30-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.6 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.6 %, rank 5/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.7 %, rank 1/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.6 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97.1 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97.6 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.3 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.9 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59.7 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71.8 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    Korea has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (13.3 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    Korea has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (12.9 %, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (31.3 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (35.4 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (27.1 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Korea, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 8/28 ) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the percentage of today's young men expected to graduate from upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93 %, rank 6/28 ) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from an upper secondary general programme is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71.7 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Korea has a small share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (34 Index, rank 38/40 ) Download Indicator

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98 %, rank 2/31 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (80.7 %, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students younger than 25-year-old entering short-cycle tertiary programmes is relatively high. (90.8 %, rank 2/26 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (61.2 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively low. (17.1 %, rank 14/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (63.1 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (59.5 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults in tertiary education whose parents had not attained upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (38.1 %, rank 5/19 ) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the proportion of men among 25-34 year-old first generation tertiary-educated non-students is quite high compared to other countries. (49.3 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of male graduates in sciences from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (10.6 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in the humanities and arts from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries . (34.1 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (17.9 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in sciences from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (10.9 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in the humanities and arts from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (18.5 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    In Korea, the proportion of adults between the ages of 35 and 44 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the lowest among other countries with available data. (29.1 %, rank 13/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of human, health and social work is quite high. (34.9 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5674 USD Equivalent, rank 21/28 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (145 Index, rank 7/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (138 Index, rank 2/28 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (142 Index, rank 7/29 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.1 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.7 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    In Korea, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (14.5 %, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the change in public expenditure between 2008 and 2012 on primary to tertiary education, including subsidies to households is comparatively large. (120 Index, rank 4/27 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total public expenditure for all services, including education, between 2008 and 2012 is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (132 Index, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in bachelor's or equivalent programmes (former tertiary-type A) in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4773 USD Equivalent, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in master's or equivalent programmes (former tertiary-type A) in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6281 USD Equivalent, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (171 Index, rank 3/29 ) Download Indicator

    In Korea, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6 %, rank 8/38 ) Download Indicator

    In Korea, private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively big, excluding subsidies. (114 Index, rank 6/29 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in GDP is comparatively big. (107 Index, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the biggest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (101 Index, rank 9/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively big. (107 Index, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    Korea has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (33.5 %, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially high. (18 Students, rank 8/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16 Students, rank 9/37 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51489 USD Equivalent, rank 8/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51489 USD Equivalent, rank 8/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50141 USD Equivalent, rank 4/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51594 USD Equivalent, rank 8/32 ) Download Indicator

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 Ratio, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for primary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively small in Korea. (97 Index, rank 17/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively small in Korea. (97 Index, rank 17/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2003 and 2013 in statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively small in Korea. (97 Index, rank 16/24 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Korea. (667 Hours, rank 24/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Korea. (557 Hours, rank 29/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively small in Korea. (549 Hours, rank 25/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary school is especially small. (180 Days, rank 21/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary school is especially large. (190 Days, rank 9/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially large. (190 Days, rank 9/31 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in upper secondary school is especially large. (190 Days, rank 7/31 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Korea. (574 Hours, rank 25/26 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (59.7 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (45.9 %, rank 8/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (43.9 %, rank 7/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (44.8 %, rank 7/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (1.1 %, rank 33/36 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (44193 USD Equivalent, rank 10/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (82002 USD Equivalent, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers younger than 30 in secondary schools is among the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.7 %, rank 10/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 39 in secondary schools is especially high. (32.1 %, rank 7/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (44088 USD Equivalent, rank 10/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (81897 USD Equivalent, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (81897 USD Equivalent, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (42878 USD Equivalent, rank 7/27 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (82002 USD Equivalent, rank 2/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 USD Equivalent, rank 5/28 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.79 Ratio, rank 1/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.79 Ratio, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 Ratio, rank 1/31 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Korea compared to other OECD and partner countries. (37 Years, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (77 USD Equivalent, rank 5/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 USD Equivalent, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.1 %, rank 9/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.8 %, rank 31/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.4 %, rank 15/20 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.3 %, rank 30/31 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34.6 %, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.4 %, rank 23/28 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    In Korea, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (648 Hours, rank 23/23 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly large in lower secondary schools. (33 Students, rank 2/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly large in primary schools. (24 Students, rank 7/32 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Years, rank 7/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (190 Days, rank 10/34 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (190 Days, rank 10/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively large in Korea. (24 Students, rank 9/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively large in Korea. (29 Students, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Korea. (33 Students, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Korea. (32 Students, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (77.4 %, rank 34/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (66.2 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (78.9 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (58.3 %, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (62.6 %, rank 37/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively low. (6.9 %, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (137 Index, rank 31/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (152 Index, rank 25/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (145 Index, rank 25/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in the fields of education, humanities and social sciences is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (42.5 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in sciences and engineering is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of sciences and engineering is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (26.1 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (115 Index, rank 15/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (150 Index, rank 12/21 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (200 Index, rank 7/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education reporting that they trust others is one of the lowest among other countries with available data. (9.7 %, rank 16/20 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Korea. (22.2 %, rank 9/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with an upper secondary or post-secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Korea. (21.6 %, rank 5/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Korea. (24.8 %, rank 4/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Korea is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.7 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.