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Diagram of the education system



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Key
  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Japan

    Japan
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Participation in pre-primary education is high and increasing in Japan. Although attendance is not compulsory, 81% of 3-year-olds and 95% of 4-year-olds were enrolled in pre-primary education in 2013, rates higher than the OECD averages for total enrolment at these ages (74% of 3-year-olds and 88% of 4-year-olds). Between 2005 and 2013, enrolment rates for 3-year-olds increased by 13 percentage points in Japan.
  • Nearly all young people in Japan (97%) are expected to complete upper secondary education over their lifetime, which is considerably higher than the OECD average of 85%.
  • Adults with tertiary education in Japan earned 52% more than adults with upper secondary as their highest level of education (compared to the OECD average of 60% more).
  • Gender gaps are still observed in many areas of education as well as in the labour market in Japan. Japan is one of only three OECD countries where a larger proportion of 25-34 year-old men (42%; compared to the OECD average of 36%) than women (31%; compared to the OECD average of 46%) had attained tertiary education in 2014.
  • In Japan, the share of public funding for education is one of the smallest (70%), mainly as a result of the large share of private funding (high tuition fees) at the tertiary level (65.7%, compared with 30.3%, on average across OECD countries).
  • Classes in primary and lower secondary schools in Japan are among the largest in OECD countries. In 2013, in public institutions, the average primary class had 27 students - the third largest among OECD countries with available data (the OECD average is 21 students).
  • In Japan, starting teachers' salaries at the primary and secondary levels are lower than the OECD average, but after 10 years of experience, teachers' salaries at the primary and secondary levels equal or exceed the OECD average (by 9% at the primary level, 5% at the lower secondary level and at the OECD average level at upper secondary level).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    Japan has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (21 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    Japan has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (30 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (28 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (37 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Japan, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97 %, rank 4/28 ) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of today's young men expected to graduate from upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96 %, rank 4/28 ) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of today's young women expected to graduate from upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98 %, rank 6/28 ) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from an upper secondary general programme is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (75 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    Japan has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (25 Index, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Japan has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (24 Index, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    Japan has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (45 Index, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Japan has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (44 Index, rank 3/25 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8 %, rank 25/33 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Japan has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (1 %, rank 19/24 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Japan has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (71 Index, rank 3/23 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Japan has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (68 Index, rank 1/19 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Japan has one of the lowest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (51 Index, rank 22/24 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Japan has a small share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (30 Index, rank 39/40 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 5-14 year-olds in Japan is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 2/39 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 24/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79 %, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young people expected to enter tertiary education during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (78 %, rank 6/27 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (24 %, rank 12/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (58 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (36 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (58 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (38 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (58 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (33 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults in tertiary education whose parents have attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (94 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of men among 25-34 year-old first generation tertiary-educated non-students is quite high compared to other countries. (50 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of male graduates in agriculture from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (12 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in social sciences, business and law from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (48 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in agriculture from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (14 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the services sector is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (77 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (26 %, rank 34/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Classes are particularly large in lower secondary schools. (33 Students, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly large in primary schools. (27 Students, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (202 Days, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (201 Days, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (27 Students, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (30 Students, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (32 Students, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (34 Students, rank 2/31 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    In Japan, the proportion of adults between the ages of 25 and 34 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (54 %, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of adults between the ages of 35 and 44 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (45 %, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    The share of men among 25-64 year-old adults who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is relatively high compared to other countries. (40 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 year-old adults who reported that they are required to complete complex ICT (information and communication technologies) tasks at work, the percentage of adults with good ICT and problem-solving skills is relatively high. (73 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires moderate ICT skills is relatively high. (56 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires straightforward ICT skills is relatively high. (30 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of education is quite high. (50 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year old adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among workers in manufacturing jobs is quite high. (43 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11671 USD Equivalent, rank 10/37 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5872 USD Equivalent, rank 19/28 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively small. (114 Index, rank 20/29 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively small. (96 Index, rank 25/29 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66 %, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (9 %, rank 27/32 ) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 32/38 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in bachelor's or equivalent programmes (former tertiary-type A) in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5152 USD Equivalent, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in master's or equivalent programmes (former tertiary-type A) in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5150 USD Equivalent, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    The change in private expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (76 Index, rank 22/22 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (113 Index, rank 17/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Japan, private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    Japan has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (30 %, rank 5/34 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48546 USD Equivalent, rank 9/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48546 USD Equivalent, rank 9/32 ) Download Indicator

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 Ratio, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Japan. (608 Hours, rank 25/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively small in Japan. (513 Hours, rank 28/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary school is especially large. (201 Days, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially large. (202 Days, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in upper secondary school is especially large. (197 Days, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (3 %, rank 32/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 40 and 49 in secondary schools is especially high. (34 %, rank 5/35 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 USD Equivalent, rank 4/28 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 Ratio, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 Ratio, rank 2/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66 USD Equivalent, rank 6/29 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48 %, rank 28/28 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report having the computer skills needed to do their job is quite low. (63 %, rank 15/15 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (144 Index, rank 25/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who report that they volunteer at least once a month is one of the lowest among other countries with available data. (12 %, rank 14/20 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.