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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

Education system in Italy

Italy
Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Attendance at early childhood education is nearly universal in Italy: 98% of 4-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Italy in 2012, tertiary educational institutions spent USD 10 0712 per student. This is higher than the expenditure per student in more than one-third of OECD and partner countries, but it is only two-thirds the OECD average. The funding of tertiary educational institutions represented 0.9% of Italy's GDP, slightly up from 0.8% in 2000, but still the second lowest share among OECD countries.
  • Italy combines high graduation rates for master's degrees with low graduation rates for short-cycle and bachelor's programmes. If current patterns persist, 20% of young Italians can be expected to obtain a master's or equivalent degree (for example, laurea magistrale) during their lifetime, a larger proportion than the 17% on average across OECD countries. Yet, only 42% of Italy's young people are expected to enter tertiary education, the smallest share among all OECD countries except Luxembourg and Mexico.
  • Despite their low numbers, tertiary education graduates in Italy earn relatively less in the labour market. The difference between the earnings of tertiary-educated graduates relative to those of adults with only upper secondary education as their highest level of attainment are much higher than the OECD average, in Italy relative earnings are lower: 143%, compared to the OECD average of 160%.
  • Only 62% of 25-34 year-old graduates from tertiary education were employed in Italy in 2014, 5 percentage points less than the rate in 2010. This is a level comparable to Greece, and is the lowest among OECD countries (the OECD average is 82%).
  • In Italy, teachers are relatively old. In 2013, 57% of all primary teachers in Italy, 73% of teachers in upper secondary education and 51% of teachers in tertiary education were 50 years and older, the largest proportions among OECD and partner countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59 %, rank 32/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17 %, rank 36/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24 %, rank 37/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 %, rank 36/40 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Italy, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (78 %, rank 21/28 ) Download Indicator

    The share of graduates from upper secondary general programmes who are younger than 25 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    The share of graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes who are younger than 25 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/31 ) Download Indicator

    Italy has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (0 Index, rank 29/30 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Italy has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (34 Index, rank 22/23 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Italy has one of the highest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (59 Index, rank 7/24 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the highest among countries with available data. (86 %, rank 5/21 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Italy has a large share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (52 Index, rank 7/40 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 5-14 year-olds in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 2/39 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 10/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98 %, rank 6/38 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 %, rank 9/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56 %, rank 6/28 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-years-old adults who enter tertiary education in Italy is relatively high. (90 %, rank 6/26 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students younger than 30-years-old entering master's or equivalent programmes in Italy is comparatively high. (92 %, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (45 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (28 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively low. (5 %, rank 20/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (50 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (24 %, rank 2/19 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (41 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (32 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults in tertiary education whose parents had not attained upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (34 %, rank 6/19 ) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of women among 25-34 year-old first generation tertiary-educated non-students is quite high compared to other countries. (62 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (89 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the humanities and arts is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (72 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (34 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (53 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (200 Days, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (200 Days, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the highest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (19 Ratio, rank 7/27 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively small. (90 Index, rank 29/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively small. (90 Index, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively small. (107 Index, rank 25/29 ) Download Indicator

    In Italy, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (7 %, rank 32/32 ) Download Indicator

    In Italy, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 34/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change in public expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (88 Index, rank 29/31 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 Index, rank 27/29 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (134 Index, rank 10/23 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the smallest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (93 Index, rank 23/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively small. (91 Index, rank 27/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19 Students, rank 9/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 31/39 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (9 %, rank 36/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (8 %, rank 35/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (4 %, rank 34/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (6 %, rank 36/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (18 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96 %, rank 4/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37 %, rank 28/32 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 16/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 16/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 15/21 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Italy compared to other OECD and partner countries. (35 Years, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (78 %, rank 33/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (70 %, rank 30/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (83 %, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (74 %, rank 33/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (25 %, rank 7/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (16 %, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (18 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (8 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively high. (6 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (9 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (90 %, rank 3/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (67 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (73 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (62 %, rank 2/25 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (142 Index, rank 30/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (143 Index, rank 26/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (62 Index, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (12 %, rank 4/38 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (7 %, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (4 %, rank 5/12 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who report being in good health is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (87 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Italy. (35 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Italy. (35 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 15-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Italy. (28 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-old men who are not in education, are unemployed and are not in the labour force in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-old women who are not in education, are unemployed and are not in the labour force in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds without an upper secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Italy. (24 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with an upper secondary or post-secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Italy. (30 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Italy. (29 %, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 %, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.