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Israel
Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • In Israel, 85% of the population aged 25-64 have completed upper secondary education, above the OECD average of 76%. This trend, beginning with the older generation, has continued to the present day.
  • The gender gap in tertiary attainment is pronounced in Israel, with 53% of women between the ages of 25-64 achieving a tertiary degree and just 44% of men in the same age group, compared with the OECD average of 35% and 32%, respectively.
  • Israel has a high early childhood enrolment rate. Almost one-half (45%) of 2-year-olds and 100% of 3 year-olds are enrolled in early-childhood programmes in Israel, above the OECD averages of 39% and 74%, respectively.
  • From primary through tertiary education, Israel spends the equivalent of 6.5% of its GDP on educational institutions (the OECD average is 5.3%); 4.4% on all primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (above the OECD average of 3.7%), and 1.6% on tertiary education, on par with the OECD average of 1.5%.
  • Between 2005 and 2012, Israel increased its spending per student in non-tertiary education (38%) by more than the OECD average (21%).The share of private expenditure on educational institutions in Israel is 23%, above the OECD average of 16.5%.
  • Women in Israel earn relatively less than their similarly educated male counterparts in the same age group. Tertiary-educated women earn just 63% of men with the same level of education, less than the OECD average of 73%.
  • The average class size in Israel is 27 students in primary education and 28 students in lower secondary education, larger than the OECD average of 21 and 24 students, respectively. Israeli students have more hours of compulsory instruction time per year in primary (5831 hours) and lower secondary education (3070 hours) than OECD countries on average. However, teachers are relatively well paid in Israel: salaries range from 91% to 96% of the average for similarly educated workers, depending on the level of education taught from pre-primary to upper secondary education.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.8 %, rank 9/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 30-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.5 %, rank 4/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.5 %, rank 3/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46 %, rank 9/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.4 %, rank 2/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.5 %, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.2 %, rank 3/29 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.8 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.9 %, rank 6/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.1 %, rank 5/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.9 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.5 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.1 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.7 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    Israel has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (14 %, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    Israel has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (13.1 %, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    Israel has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (15 %, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (1 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Israel, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.9 %, rank 9/28 ) Download Indicator

    The share of graduates from upper secondary general programmes who are younger than 25 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    The share of graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes who are younger than 25 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/31 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Israel has a large share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (52 Index, rank 6/40 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Israel is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Israel is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/38 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72.6 %, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Israel is relatively large. (57.8 %, rank 4/35 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3416 USD Equivalent, rank 26/28 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (138 Index, rank 8/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (154 Index, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (112 Index, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.6 %, rank 8/35 ) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the change in public expenditure between 2008 and 2012 on primary to tertiary education, including subsidies to households is comparatively large. (121 Index, rank 3/27 ) Download Indicator

    The change in public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure between 2008 and 2012 is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (113 Index, rank 2/27 ) Download Indicator

    The change in public expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (147 Index, rank 5/31 ) Download Indicator

    The change in private expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (243 Index, rank 2/22 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (104 Index, rank 20/23 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in government-dependent private institutions for a bachelor's or equivalent level education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2934 USD Equivalent, rank 2/7 ) Download Indicator

    In Israel, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6 %, rank 9/38 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in GDP is comparatively big. (108 Index, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the biggest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (105 Index, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively big. (112 Index, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25518 USD Equivalent, rank 24/31 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.91 Ratio, rank 2/19 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.96 Ratio, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.95 Ratio, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.91 Ratio, rank 6/21 ) Download Indicator

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.21 Ratio, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for primary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Israel. (126 Index, rank 3/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Israel. (119 Index, rank 3/25 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Israel. (840 Hours, rank 9/32 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (52 %, rank 10/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (9.5 %, rank 10/36 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.57 Ratio, rank 2/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.62 Ratio, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.08 Ratio, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Israel compared to other OECD and partner countries. (36 Years, rank 5/32 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.4 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79.2 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69.7 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    In Israel, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1023 Hours, rank 6/23 ) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Israel is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5831 Hours, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5831 Hours, rank 5/23 ) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Israel is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8901 Hours, rank 5/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Israel, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8901 Hours, rank 3/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Israel, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (972 Hours, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (972 Hours, rank 5/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Israel, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1023 Hours, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly large in lower secondary schools. (28 Students, rank 7/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly large in primary schools. (27 Students, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (214 Days, rank 1/34 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (223 Days, rank 1/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively large in Israel. (28 Students, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (86.1 %, rank 10/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (48.6 %, rank 29/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (83.4 %, rank 8/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively low. (9.7 %, rank 30/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (50.8 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (65.3 %, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (43.4 %, rank 5/24 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (90.3 %, rank 1/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (69.1 %, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (75.3 %, rank 3/25 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.9 %, rank 5/32 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (117 Index, rank 13/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (157 Index, rank 9/21 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (225 Index, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (181 Index, rank 6/21 ) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (243 Index, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.4 %, rank 27/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.
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