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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in Iceland

    Iceland
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2019)
  • The share of tertiary-educated young adults in Iceland increased sharply over the past decade, from 33% in 2008 to 47% in 2018, and it is now above the OECD average. A large share of Icelandic tertiary students are enrolled abroad.
  • Iceland exhibits one of the highest enrolment rates in early childhood education and care, and above-average expenditure on education at this level.
  • A large share of young adults do not attain upper secondary education in Iceland, but employment rates are high even for those without an upper secondary qualification. Those who do attain upper secondary education tend to graduate later than in other countries.
  • Although teachers enjoy above-average salaries at the beginning of their careers, salaries do not increase as much with experience as in other countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 9/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (79.2 %, rank 21/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22 %, rank 27/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Iceland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (28.1 Years, rank 6/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes in Iceland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (20.5 Years, rank 1/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (27.5 %, rank 7/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (10.4 %, rank 29/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Iceland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.9 %, rank 6/40 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Iceland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 5/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the share of part-time students in master's programmes is relatively large. (41 %, rank 7/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of part-time students in doctoral programmes in Iceland is relatively large. (43.3 %, rank 7/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    The percentage of young people expected to graduate from vocational programmes in upper secondary education during their lifetimes in Iceland is comparatively low (17.8 %, rank 27/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education before turning 25 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.3 %, rank 27/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Iceland has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (0.7 %, rank 27/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Iceland has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (0.6 %, rank 20/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Iceland has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education before the age of 30. (0.2 %, rank 20/21 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Iceland has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (48.4 %, rank 5/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (27.2 %, rank 3/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Iceland has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (0.8 %, rank 24/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Iceland has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctoral or an equivalent education before the age of 30. (0.2 %, rank 24/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (37.4 %, rank 35/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (54.5 %, rank 7/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (25 %, rank 35/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Iceland is relatively low. (31.7 %, rank 24/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 7/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Iceland is relatively small. (7.8 %, rank 40/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Iceland is relatively large. (34.4 %, rank 5/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of information and communication technologies in Iceland is relatively small. (0 %, rank 42/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Iceland is relatively small. (6.3 %, rank 42/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 33/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (1.4 %, rank 21/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Iceland, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (10.5 %, rank 30/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Iceland is relatively low. (9.1 %, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the share of female among new entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (0 %, rank 32/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland,the share of male among new entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics ans statistics is relatively small. (44.7 %, rank 32/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland,the share of male among new entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (54.5 %, rank 34/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the share of male among new entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (31.6 %, rank 30/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Iceland has a small share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (2.2 %, rank 22/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Iceland is one of the least attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 46/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 Students, rank 38/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, international students from North America are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.5 %, rank 3/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, international students from Europe are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.8 %, rank 10/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, international students from Oceania are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 3/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the proportion of new international entrants into master's long first degreee (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (0 %, rank 20/20 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities in Iceland is relatively high. (46 %, rank 1/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information in Iceland is relatively low. (7.1 %, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law in Iceland is relatively low. (10 %, rank 34/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertairy students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Iceland is relatively high. (17.3 %, rank 1/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Iceland is relatively low. (1.3 %, rank 35/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Iceland is relatively low. (6.2 %, rank 37/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of health and welfare in Iceland is relatively low. (3.1 %, rank 36/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.4 %, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 33/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 31/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.5 %, rank 31/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Iceland, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (839 Hours, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the shortest compared to other countries with available data. (2516 Hours, rank 27/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (170 Days, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (170 Days, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively small in Iceland. (15 Students, rank 27/32 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively small in Iceland. (20 Students, rank 25/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Iceland. (13 Students, rank 30/32 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13230 USD Equivalent, rank 4/31 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11757 USD Equivalent, rank 5/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core and ancillary services, from primary to below-tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11707 USD Equivalent, rank 7/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary, is relatively high. (11707 USD Equivalent, rank 7/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Iceland, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.1 %, rank 30/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (5.3 %, rank 3/39 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 29/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 28/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 31/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Iceland has one of the smallest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (4.7 %, rank 31/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (12.8 %, rank 9/38 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively large . (88.6 %, rank 5/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large . (94.5 %, rank 5/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Iceland compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.4 %, rank 10/39 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (11.1 Ratio, rank 37/41 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, the ratio of children to contact staff in pre-primary education is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.3 Ratio, rank 20/21 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94.6 %, rank 32/40 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.6 %, rank 4/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (4.5 %, rank 33/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Iceland relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (39710 USD Equivalent, rank 9/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the lowest in Iceland. (45055 USD Equivalent, rank 14/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.16 Ratio, rank 33/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.17 Ratio, rank 25/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.16 Ratio, rank 33/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 Ratio, rank 29/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers less time to progress through the salary scale in Iceland compared to other OECD and partner countries. (15 Years, rank 20/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In pre-primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.17 Ratio, rank 26/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.16 Ratio, rank 34/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.16 Ratio, rank 34/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.3 Ratio, rank 32/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    The average lower secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59228 USD Equivalent, rank 15/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (82.1 %, rank 4/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1.7 %, rank 35/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.5 %, rank 33/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is low in Iceland. (15.5 %, rank 41/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is low in Iceland. (5.1 %, rank 42/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Iceland. (6.5 %, rank 40/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Iceland. (7.1 %, rank 40/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 years-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (4.9 %, rank 40/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 years-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (6.2 %, rank 39/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 years-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.9 %, rank 33/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 years-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.3 %, rank 38/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 years-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.2 %, rank 40/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with below upper secondary education who get together with friends at least once a week is one of the lowest in Iceland. (30.1 %, rank 28/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who get together with friends at least once a week is one of the lowest in Iceland. (30.4 %, rank 27/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with tertiary education who get together with friends at least once a week is one of the lowest in Iceland. (29.8 %, rank 27/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, a large share of adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education participated in formal voluntary activities in the 12 months prior to the survey. (24.9 %, rank 7/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Iceland, a large share of adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education participated in formal voluntary activities in the 12 months prior to the survey. (41.9 %, rank 8/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 years-old adults with tertiary education, a high proportion have someone to ask for moral, material or financial help. (98.5 %, rank 6/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the percentage of adults (25-64 years old) with below upper secondary education who actively participate in social media on a daily basis is high in Iceland. (36.5 %, rank 5/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education, a small share have difficulties to fulfill their family responsabilities because of their jobs, compared to other countries with available data. (38 %, rank 15/18 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of employed adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education who have concentration difficulties at work because of family responsabilities is low in Iceland. (22.2 %, rank 13/18 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of employed adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education who have concentration difficulties at work because of family responsabilities is high in Iceland. (43.1 %, rank 3/32 , 2015) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • In 2018, 44% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 35% in 2008, on average across OECD countries.
    • Tertiary-educated adults also reap higher earnings, although this varies by field of study. Their advantage increases with age too: 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education earn 38% more than their peers with upper secondary education while 45-54 year-olds earn 70% more.
    • While engineering, manufacturing and construction, and information and communication technologies are two fields most commonly associated with the best labour market outcomes, only 14% of graduates earned a degree in the former and 4% earned a degree in the latter in 2017.
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    • Although graduation from upper secondary education increased by 6 percentage points between 2005 and 2017, 15% of 25-34 year-olds did not attain upper secondary education in 2018, on average across OECD countries.
    • In some countries, vocational programmes are prominent at the upper secondary level. On average across OECD countries, 40% of first-time upper secondary graduates earned a vocational qualification in 2017; in Austria, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia, more than 66% of this population did.
    • At the lower secondary level, the average class shrank by 6% while teachers' statutory salaries increased by 8% between 2005 and 2017, on average across OECD countries.
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    • In 2017, more than one in three children under the age of three were enrolled in early childhood education and care services, on average across OECD countries - an increase of 7 percentage points compared to 2010.
    • Between the age of 3 to 5, on average across OECD countries, 87% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education.
    • Annual expenditure per child in early childhood development programmes was greater than in pre-primary education in 2016 on average across OECD countries. However, as a share of GDP, expenditure on early childhood development is lower.
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    • In 2016, expenditure per tertiary student amounted to USD 15 556, approximately one-third of which was devoted to research and development.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at the tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
    • OECD countries spent an average of 3.5% of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary institutions in 2016, and public expenditure at this level increased by 18% since 2005.
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    • About 10% of primary and secondary teachers are under the age of 30, on average across OECD countries.
    • While the teaching profession is dominated by women, the share of female teachers decreases with the level of education taught: almost all teachers at the pre-primary level are women, however they make up less than half of the teaching force at tertiary level.
    • Salaries tend to increase with the level of education taught, but teachers' earnings remain between 78% and 93% of the earnings of other tertiary-educated adults.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Iceland

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.