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Hungary
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Diagram of the education system



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Key
  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Hungary

    Hungary
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • In Hungary, 93% of children aged 4 were enrolled in pre-primary education and 91% attended public institutions in 2013 (the OECD averages are 85% and 61%, respectively).
  • Hungary has a low share of tertiary graduates, in particular at the bachelor's and doctoral levels. The proportion of Hungarians expected to enter a bachelor's programme during their lifetime is 41% and 14% are expected to enter a master's programme. The OECD averages are 57% and 22%, respectively. If current patterns are maintained, less than one percent of Hungarians are expected to graduate from a doctoral programme (OECD average: 1.7%).
  • In Hungary, the employment rate for 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is 37 percentage points higher than for those without upper secondary education and the earnings premium for tertiary-educated workers is the fourth highest across the OECD. However, a tertiary-educated woman earns 64% of the earnings of a tertiary-educated man (OECD average: 73%), the lowest rate after Israel, Brazil and Chile. And yet, women make up a large share of first-time graduates in Hungary, 69% of short-cycle tertiary qualifications, 61% of bachelor's and 61% of masters. The OECD averages are 56%, 58% and 56%, respectively.
  • Hungary spends much less on education than most OECD countries. Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is USD 5 564 (OECD average: USD 10220) and Hungary is one of only six OECD countries which cut public expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) in real terms in 2008-10, by one of the highest rates, 11%, and by 13% during 2010-12.
  • Teachers' salaries as a proportion of the salaries of other professionals with similar education, are the lowest at the upper secondary level: at this level, teachers earn 48% of what a full-time, full-year worker aged 25-64 with a similar educational attainment earns.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55 %, rank 6/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60 %, rank 5/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52 %, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    Hungary has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (22 Index, rank 27/34 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Hungary has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (1 %, rank 21/24 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates from short-cycle tertiary programmes is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (69 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    Hungary has one of the highest proportions of female graduates from master's or equivalent programmes. (61 Index, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Hungary is comparatively large. (64 %, rank 5/29 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of male graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (71 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in the services sector from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (34 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in the services sector from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (18 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in social sciences, business and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (71 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (35 %, rank 27/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Classes are particularly small in lower secondary schools. (21 Students, rank 22/31 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively high in Hungary. (19 Ratio, rank 6/18 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5564 USD Equivalent, rank 29/37 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4539 USD Equivalent, rank 24/28 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4370 USD Equivalent, rank 31/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4419 USD Equivalent, rank 30/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively small. (85 Index, rank 28/28 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46 %, rank 10/35 ) Download Indicator

    In Hungary, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (8 %, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    In Hungary, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 35/38 ) Download Indicator

    Public expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 6/26 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the smallest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (87 Index, rank 29/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively small. (87 Index, rank 29/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (11 Students, rank 35/39 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13061 USD Equivalent, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15491 USD Equivalent, rank 28/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12305 USD Equivalent, rank 24/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13061 USD Equivalent, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 17/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 17/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 Ratio, rank 21/21 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Hungary. (601 Hours, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Hungary. (601 Hours, rank 27/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (30 %, rank 30/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (29 %, rank 28/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (4 %, rank 28/36 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Hungary compared to other OECD and partner countries. (40 Years, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96 %, rank 5/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76 %, rank 4/28 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (45 %, rank 34/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (77 %, rank 29/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 32/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite high. (238 Index, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite high. (176 Index, rank 7/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite high. (201 Index, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (82 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (88 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from post-secondary non-tertiary education during their lifetime is one of the highest among countries with available data. (18 Index, rank 6/21 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of education, humanities and social sciences is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (76 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (94 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (102 Index, rank 20/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (174 Index, rank 5/21 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (250 Index, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Hungary, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (104 Index, rank 20/20 ) Download Indicator

    In Hungary, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (210 Index, rank 3/21 ) Download Indicator

    In Hungary, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (276 Index, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Hungary. (24 %, rank 8/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Hungary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.