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Greece
Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Unemployment in Greece continued to rise for adults with all levels of attainment. The unemployment rate for adults with below upper secondary education increased from 12% in 2010 to 28% in 2014 (the OECD average remained at 13% during the same period). The unemployment rate for adults with tertiary education hit 19% in 2014 (5% on average across the OECD) and young adults, 15-29 years-old, with a tertiary degree reported the highest NEET rates (neither employed nor in education or training), 40% while the OECD average is 14%.
  • Tertiary attainment in Greece continues to rise, but is still below the OECD average. In 2014, 39% of 25-34 year-olds had attained tertiary education, increasing from 31% in 2010 (the OECD averages are 41% and 38%, respectively).
  • Young women in Greece continue to reach higher levels of education than men: 44% of 25-34 year-old women have a tertiary education while 33% of men of the same age do. However, their unemployment rates remain higher than those of their male counterparts: in 2014, 21% of tertiary educated women were unemployed while 17% of equally educated men were. Women earn lower average salaries than men with equivalent educational backgrounds across all levels of educational attainment. In 2013, 35-44 year-old women with tertiary education earned 77% of the salaries of their male counterparts (the OECD average is 74%).
  • Teachers are ageing and receive low salaries, but class sizes are comparatively small. In Greece, 49% of primary teachers are aged 50 or over while the OECD average is 30%. In 2013, the average statutory salary of a teacher with the minimum qualifications and 15 years of experience was USD 25 826 (OECD average: USD 42 825). The same year, the average primary class size in Greece was 17 students and the average lower secondary class was 22 (the OECD averages are 21 and 24, respectively).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.3 %, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.3 %, rank 5/29 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.2 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    Greece has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-old adults who completed only primary education. (16.9 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (23.4 %, rank 6/42 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (22.2 %, rank 6/42 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of male graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (68.9 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in health and welfare from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (7.2 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the humanities and arts is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (76.5 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (32.8 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (46 %, rank 7/36 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (9 Students, rank 38/39 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 Students, rank 37/37 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25826 USD Equivalent, rank 24/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25826 USD Equivalent, rank 23/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25826 USD Equivalent, rank 18/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25826 USD Equivalent, rank 23/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.86 Ratio, rank 3/19 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.86 Ratio, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.87 Ratio, rank 7/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.87 Ratio, rank 9/21 ) Download Indicator

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.97 Ratio, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Greece. (569 Hours, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Greece. (415 Hours, rank 33/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively small in Greece. (415 Hours, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (24.6 %, rank 35/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (21.3 %, rank 34/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (18.6 %, rank 33/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (19.9 %, rank 35/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 40 and 49 in secondary schools is especially high. (41.1 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.97 Ratio, rank 5/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.97 Ratio, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.97 Ratio, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Greece compared to other OECD and partner countries. (45 Years, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    In Greece, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6387 Hours, rank 2/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Greece, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8744 Hours, rank 5/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Greece, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1065 Hours, rank 1/23 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in primary schools. (17 Students, rank 29/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (68.5 %, rank 37/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (46.9 %, rank 32/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (54.5 %, rank 37/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (72.5 %, rank 37/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (64.8 %, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (37.4 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (36 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (32.5 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (20.5 %, rank 4/35 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (20.4 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (7.8 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (27.7 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (27.6 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (19.1 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (26.5 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (22.8 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively high. (16.8 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (29.8 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (33.7 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (21.4 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (71.3 %, rank 3/25 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in sciences and engineering is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (49.8 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of education, humanities and social sciences is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (74.5 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (20.8 %, rank 1/38 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (15.4 %, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (6.7 %, rank 2/12 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (30.4 %, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (26.1 %, rank 1/27 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (148 Index, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (198 Index, rank 4/21 ) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (111 Index, rank 4/13 ) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (152 Index, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (205 Index, rank 3/21 ) Download Indicator

    In Greece, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (155 Index, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    In Greece, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (199 Index, rank 5/21 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 15-19 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Greece. (10.5 %, rank 8/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Greece. (31.3 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Greece. (41.2 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 15-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Greece. (28.3 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-old men who are not in education, are unemployed and are not in the labour force in Greece is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.9 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-old women who are not in education, are unemployed and are not in the labour force in Greece is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.7 %, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with an upper secondary or post-secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Greece. (29.4 %, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Greece. (40.3 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Greece is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.4 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Greece is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.5 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Greece is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Greece is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.1 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Greece is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45.7 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.
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