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Diagram of the education system



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  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in France

    France
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • In 2014, 44% of 25-34 year-olds in France had a tertiary degree (the OECD average for that age group was 41%) while only 20% of 55-64 year-olds did (the OECD average for this older age group was 25%). Some 40% of 25-34 year-olds in France have attained a higher level of education than their parents (compared with the average of 32% across the OECD countries that participated in the 2012 Survey of Adult Skills). Only 10% of this age group failed to attain the same level of education as their parents (the OECD average was 16 %).
  • The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds in France who had not completed upper secondary education increased by nearly 5 percentage points between 2005 and 2014, from 18.8% to 23.6%, double the average increase across OECD countries during the same period (2.6 percentage points, from 16.4% to 19.0%).
  • Statutory salaries for primary and secondary school teachers in France are below the OECD average, both for starting teachers and for those with 10 or 15 years of professional experience. In 2012 in France, the statutory salary for a pre-primary teacher with 15 years of experience was USD 33 500 (the OECD average was USD 38653); for a primary teacher with similar experience it was USD 33 500 (the OECD average was USD 41 245); for a lower secondary teacher with similar experience it was USD 36 589 (the OECD average was USD 42 825); and for an upper secondary teacher with similar experience it was USD 36 897 (the OECD average was USD 44 600).
  • Public expenditure on educational institutions in France decreased by 2%, on average, between 2010 and 2012 (OECD average increased by 1%).
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    Select first some countries to compare, choose the charts you wish to display and customise them.

    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    France has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (14 %, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    France has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (12 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    France has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (16 %, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of young people expected to graduate from vocational programmes in upper secondary education in France is comparatively high (73 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in France is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in France is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international or foreign students enrolled in doctorate programmes in France is comparatively large. (40 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (40 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (8 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively low. (19 %, rank 11/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (46 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (8 %, rank 5/19 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (34 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    In France, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1090 Hours, rank 3/23 ) Download Indicator

    In France, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4360 Hours, rank 2/23 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in France. (26 Students, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11046 USD Equivalent, rank 10/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively small. (103 Index, rank 26/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively small. (104 Index, rank 25/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (114 Index, rank 10/28 ) Download Indicator

    In France, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (9 %, rank 28/32 ) Download Indicator

    Public expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (93 %, rank 4/26 ) Download Indicator

    The change in public expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (104 Index, rank 24/31 ) Download Indicator

    The change in private expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (108 Index, rank 9/22 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (145 Index, rank 4/23 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively small. (98 Index, rank 22/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22 Students, rank 4/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (19 Students, rank 9/39 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in France. (924 Hours, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (26 %, rank 29/34 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 40 and 49 in secondary schools is especially high. (34 %, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (83 %, rank 36/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39 %, rank 19/20 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37 %, rank 26/31 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37 %, rank 27/32 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 4/19 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 8/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 2/21 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (24 %, rank 10/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (14 %, rank 8/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (55 %, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (89 %, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (88 Index, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (150 Index, rank 27/34 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (90 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (5 %, rank 4/12 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (127 Index, rank 7/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (136 Index, rank 15/21 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (207 Index, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (134 Index, rank 7/20 ) Download Indicator

    In France, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (228 Index, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.