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Finland
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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

Education system in Finland

Finland
Overview of the education system (EAG 2016)
  • Vocational education and training (VET) is more common in Finland than on average across the OECD, especially among individuals in their early 20s. Graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes have significantly higher employment rates than their counterparts from general programmes.
  • Enrolment rates in pre-primary education remain below the OECD average for 3-5 year-olds.
  • Although their average statutory salary is below the OECD average, Finnish teachers fare better than their colleagues in other countries relative to the salaries of other tertiary-qualified workers.
  • A higher share of Finnish adults have attained tertiary education than is commonly found across EU member countries in the OECD. Given current patterns, 46% of young adults are expected to graduate for the first time from a bachelor’s programme, 23% from a master’s programme, and 2.6% from a doctorate programme (OECD average 38%, 18% and 1.7% respectively).
  • Currently, students in Finland pay no tuition fees. The introduction of tuition fees for international students who do not come from EU and EEA countries taking effect in 2017 will affect about 80% of new foreign entrants, based on 2014 enrolment patterns.
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    Select first some countries to compare, choose the charts you wish to display and customise them.

    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 %, rank 10/44 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36 %, rank 6/44 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Finland, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    Finland has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (46 %, rank 8/38 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (23 %, rank 7/38 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Finland has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (2 %, rank 5/27 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Finland has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (36 %, rank 13/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Finland has a large share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (53 %, rank 8/40 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 20-29 year-olds in Finland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (41 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Finland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (74 %, rank 27/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Classes are particularly small in lower secondary schools. (20 Students, rank 26/33 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in primary schools. (19 Students, rank 24/33 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10477 USD Equivalent, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 %, rank 36/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 %, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 Index, rank 25/27 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively small. (98 Index, rank 24/31 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 Students, rank 27/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Students, rank 26/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Finland. (673 Hours, rank 22/30 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Finland. (589 Hours, rank 26/31 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively small in Finland. (547 Hours, rank 22/30 ) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 Ratio, rank 22/29 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54 %, rank 11/17 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29771 USD Equivalent, rank 14/23 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 5/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 4/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 2/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32392 USD Equivalent, rank 11/20 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43890 USD Equivalent, rank 9/23 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48240 USD Equivalent, rank 9/23 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54266 USD Equivalent, rank 7/23 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (141 Index, rank 30/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (137 Index, rank 30/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (135 Index, rank 33/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (121 Index, rank 26/29 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (163 Index, rank 22/29 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • Labour market outcomes are better among the higher-educated: on average across OECD countries, the unemployment rate is 12.4% for adults with below upper secondary education, while it is 4.9% for the tertiary-educated.
    • In all OECD countries, earnings differentials between adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education are generally more pronounced than the difference between the earnings of those with upper secondary education and those with below upper secondary education. This suggests large earnings advantages for tertiary education. On average, adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree earn almost twice as those with upper secondary education across OECD countries, and those with a bachelor's or equivalent degree earn 48% more, while those with a short-cycle tertiary degree earn only about 20% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
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    • Across all levels of educational attainment, the gender gap in earnings persists, and although women generally have higher educational attainment, a large gender gap in earnings is seen between male and female full-time workers with tertiary education.
    • Across OECD_countries, tertiary-educated women earn only 73% as much as tertiary-educated men. This gender gap of 27% in earnings for tertiary-educated adults is higher than the gender gap for adults with below upper secondary (24%) and adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (22%).
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5-years-old. Some 71% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that an average of 85% of today's young people in OECD_countries will complete upper secondary education over their lifetime.
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    • Based on current patterns of graduation, an average of 36% of today's young people across OECD countries are expected to graduate from tertiary education at least once before the age of 30.
    • In 2014, a majority of first-time tertiary graduates (72%) earned a bachelor's degree, 12% earned a_master's degree and 16% earned a short-cycle tertiary diploma, on average across OECD countries.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 493 per student per year on primary through tertiary educational institutions: USD 8 477 per primary student, USD 9 980 per lower secondary student, USD 9 990 per upper secondary student and USD 15 772 per tertiary student.
    • In 2013, OECD countries spent an average of 5.2% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education, ranging from 3.5% in Luxembourg to 6.7% in the United Kingdom.
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    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 23 in lower secondary education. These figures represent a decrease when compared to the OECD_average class sizes in 2005.
    • The difference in average class size between public and private institutions in primary education varies substantially across OECD countries, but is considerably larger in partner countries.
    • There are 15 students per teacher in primary education, on average across OECD countries. The_figure increases to 17 students per teacher, on average, at the tertiary level.
    • On average across OECD countries, pre-primary teachers' actual salaries are 74% of the earnings of a tertiary-educated 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker. Primary teachers are paid 81% of these benchmark earnings, lower secondary teachers 85% and upper secondary teachers 89%.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.