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Diagram of the education system

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  • > Notes on the education system in Estonia
    Education system in Estonia

    Estonia
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2019)
  • Only about 34% of students who enter a bachelor's programme in Estonia graduate within the programme's theoretical duration, below the average of 39%. The completion rate after three additional years is higher, at 59%, but still below the average for countries with available data of 67%.
  • Total spending on tertiary education has increased between 2012 and 2014, but spending per student remains below the OECD average.
  • Women are considerably more likely to attain tertiary education than men, although they still face lower employment rates and earnings regardless of their level of educational attainment.
  • Despite considerable increases in recent years, teachers' salaries remain low and below the average earnings of tertiary-educated workers in the country.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.8 %, rank 23/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (20.4 %, rank 5/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (medical and dental) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.5 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (nursing and associate health fields) is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (4.2 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    Among adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education, a low participate in non-formal education. (57.2 %, rank 27/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Participation rate of 25-64 year-olds in job-related non-formal education sponsored by the employer is high in Estonia, compared to other countries with available data. (82 %, rank 3/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Participation rate of 25-64 year-olds in job-related non-formal education not sponsored by the employer is low in Estonia, compared to other countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Participation rate of 25-64 year-olds in not job-related non-formal education is low in Estonia, compared to other countries with available data. (12.4 %, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women participating in job-related non-formal education not sponsored by the employer is small. (5.8 %, rank 31/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women participating in not job-related non-formal education is small. (13.8 %, rank 29/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, a low proportion of 25-64 year-old men participate in job-related non-formal education not sponsored by the employer. (5.2 %, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of tertiary students enrolled in private institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (85.7 %, rank 3/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of part-time students in bachelor's programmes is relatively small. (9.7 %, rank 24/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of part-time students in master's programmes is relatively small. (9.2 %, rank 21/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (34.6 %, rank 38/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (59.5 %, rank 3/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high. (61.5 %, rank 3/41 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high. (42.9 %, rank 4/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Estonia is relatively high. (62 %, rank 5/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.5 %, rank 7/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 2/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in Estonia is relatively small. (1.6 %, rank 40/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Estonia is relatively large. (33.2 %, rank 6/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.2 %, rank 32/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 31/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (1.3 %, rank 22/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information in Estonia is relatively low. (6.8 %, rank 33/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia,the share of male among new entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (7.7 %, rank 33/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia,the share of male among new entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (61.2 %, rank 31/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Estonia is one of the least attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 37/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of new international entrants into master's long first degreee (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (8.8 %, rank 11/20 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of education in Estonia is relatively low. (0.8 %, rank 37/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law in Estonia is relatively high. (39.3 %, rank 3/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of health and welfare in Estonia is relatively low. (3.5 %, rank 35/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of services in Estonia is relatively low. (0.1 %, rank 35/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.1 %, rank 35/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 30/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 28/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Estonia, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (823 Hours, rank 27/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Estonia is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2468 Hours, rank 31/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the shortest compared to other countries with available data. (2468 Hours, rank 28/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6431 Hours, rank 27/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (661 Hours, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (823 Hours, rank 28/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in lower secondary schools. (18 Students, rank 31/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively small in Estonia. (19 Students, rank 28/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Estonia. (14 Students, rank 29/32 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Estonia, the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively low. (1463 USD Equivalent, rank 25/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The salary cost of primary teachers per students (as a percentage of GDP per capita) in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 26/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The salary cost of lower secondary teachers per students (as a percentage of GDP per capita) in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.8 %, rank 25/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6887 USD Equivalent, rank 27/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Estonia is comparatively low. (104 USD Equivalent, rank 25/25 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Estonia is comparatively low. (1 USD Equivalent, rank 24/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary educational services on primary to tertiary education in Estonia is comparatively low. (81 USD Equivalent, rank 25/25 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Estonia, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1.4 %, rank 34/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.1 %, rank 29/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Estonia has one of the smallest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.7 %, rank 28/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (3.3 %, rank 36/38 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Change in international expenditure on educational institutions for primary to tertiary education between 2010 and 2016 in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-1 % points, rank 20/21 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively large . (80.6 %, rank 10/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large . (88.7 %, rank 10/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Change in total public expenditure, for primary to tertiary education, as a percentage of total government expenditure between 2010 and 2016 in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84 Index, rank 29/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Tuition fees

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by public institutions, for foreign students in bachelor's or equivalent level in Estonia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 6/6 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by public institutions, for foreign students in master's or equivalent level in Estonia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 5/5 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by independent private institutions, for foreign students in bachelor's or equivalent level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8565 USD Equivalent, rank 2/3 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by independent private institutions, for foreign students in master's or equivalent level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8747 USD Equivalent, rank 2/3 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by government dependent private institutions, for foreign students in master's or equivalent level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7536 USD Equivalent, rank 3/4 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by government dependent private institutions, for foreign students in bachelor's or equivalent level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6764 USD Equivalent, rank 3/4 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially low. (172 Days, rank 29/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.7 Ratio, rank 23/30 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.4 %, rank 6/40 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (83.1 %, rank 3/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.1 %, rank 8/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.6 %, rank 2/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (45.8 %, rank 34/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (38.5 %, rank 34/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (40.6 %, rank 33/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (42.4 %, rank 33/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (48.7 %, rank 3/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.63 Ratio, rank 21/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.91 Ratio, rank 9/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17686 USD Equivalent, rank 24/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25333 USD Equivalent, rank 23/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25333 USD Equivalent, rank 23/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25333 USD Equivalent, rank 24/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Pre-primary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Estonia. (0.95 Ratio, rank 14/18 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Lower-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Estonia. (1.12 Ratio, rank 18/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Upper-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Estonia. (1.12 Ratio, rank 19/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average pre-primary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26564 USD Equivalent, rank 19/19 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average primary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest in Estonia relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (31328 USD Equivalent, rank 21/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average lower secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31328 USD Equivalent, rank 21/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average upper-secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31328 USD Equivalent, rank 22/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (78.8 %, rank 7/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Estonia, compared to other OECD countries. (41.1 %, rank 6/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Estonia, compared to other OECD countries. (24.3 %, rank 31/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Estonia, compared to other OECD countries. (39.1 %, rank 8/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Estonia, compared to OECD countries. (19.4 %, rank 29/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is low in Estonia. (19.8 %, rank 39/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in Estonia. (14.1 %, rank 9/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (78 %, rank 5/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (57.7 %, rank 3/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (89 Index, rank 5/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (131 Index, rank 31/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (62.1 %, rank 37/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (63.3 %, rank 37/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (74.2 %, rank 35/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (94 Index, rank 29/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (142 Index, rank 32/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (102 Index, rank 28/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (142 Index, rank 33/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (130 Index, rank 33/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (93 Index, rank 29/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a Master's, doctoral or equivalent education degree are comparatively low. (141 Index, rank 32/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (85.7 %, rank 3/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (106 %, rank 12/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (104.8 %, rank 9/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (101.8 %, rank 13/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The proportion of 15-19 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Estonia. (9 %, rank 10/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 years-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (10.6 %, rank 7/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 years-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (7.2 %, rank 38/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Migrant background

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-old foreign-born adults is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.6 %, rank 26/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time without upper secondary or post-secondary education are comparatively low. (71 Index, rank 21/21 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full-time full-year without upper secondary education are low compared to those of native-born workers with the same characteristics (74 Index, rank 17/19 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with tertiary education are low compared to those of native-born with the same characteristics. (79 Index, rank 17/21 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full-time full-year with tertiary education are low compared to those of native-born with the same characteristics. (79 Index, rank 17/19 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary education are low compared to those of native-born with the same characteristics. (73 Index, rank 17/21 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full-time full-year with upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary education are low compared to those of native-born with the same characteristics. (74 Index, rank 16/19 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born aged between 15 and 29 in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.3 %, rank 27/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born aged between 15 and 29 who are neither employed nor in education and training is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.1 %, rank 20/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with tertiary education who get together with friends at least once a week is one of the lowest in Estonia. (39.9 %, rank 24/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, a small share of adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education participated in formal voluntary activities in the 12 months prior to the survey. (23.1 %, rank 20/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 years-old adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, a low proportion have someone to ask for moral, material or financial help. (92.3 %, rank 25/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 years-old adults with tertiary education, a low proportion have someone to ask for moral, material or financial help. (95.5 %, rank 23/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the percentage of adults (25-64 years old) with tertiary education who actively participate in social media on a daily basis is low in Estonia. (30.8 %, rank 22/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education, a small share have difficulties to fulfill their family responsabilities because of their jobs, compared to other countries with available data. (41.6 %, rank 28/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of employed adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education who have concentration difficulties at work because of family responsabilities is low in Estonia. (24.7 %, rank 25/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Weekly working hours among employed 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education are long in Estonia compared to other OECD countries. (40.3 Hours/week, rank 6/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education, a small share have high flexibility of working hours. (19.6 %, rank 19/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education, a small share have high flexibility of working hours. (29 %, rank 19/28 , 2015) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • In 2018, 44% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 35% in 2008, on average across OECD countries.
    • Tertiary-educated adults also reap higher earnings, although this varies by field of study. Their advantage increases with age too: 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education earn 38% more than their peers with upper secondary education while 45-54 year-olds earn 70% more.
    • While engineering, manufacturing and construction, and information and communication technologies are two fields most commonly associated with the best labour market outcomes, only 14% of graduates earned a degree in the former and 4% earned a degree in the latter in 2017.
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    • Although graduation from upper secondary education increased by 6 percentage points between 2005 and 2017, 15% of 25-34 year-olds did not attain upper secondary education in 2018, on average across OECD countries.
    • In some countries, vocational programmes are prominent at the upper secondary level. On average across OECD countries, 40% of first-time upper secondary graduates earned a vocational qualification in 2017; in Austria, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia, more than 66% of this population did.
    • At the lower secondary level, the average class shrank by 6% while teachers’ statutory salaries increased by 8% between 2005 and 2017, on average across OECD countries.
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    • In 2017, more than one in three children under the age of three were enrolled in early childhood education and care services, on average across OECD countries - an increase of 7 percentage points compared to 2010.
    • Between the age of 3 to 5, on average across OECD countries, 87% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education.
    • Annual expenditure per child in early childhood development programmes was greater than in pre-primary education in 2016 on average across OECD countries. However, as a share of GDP, expenditure on early childhood development is lower.
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    • In 2016, expenditure per tertiary student amounted to USD 15 556, approximately one-third of which was devoted to research and development.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at the tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
    • OECD countries spent an average of 3.5% of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary institutions in 2016, and public expenditure at this level increased by 18% since 2005.
    Visualisations
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    • About 10% of primary and secondary teachers are under the age of 30, on average across OECD countries.
    • While the teaching profession is dominated by women, the share of female teachers decreases with the level of education taught: almost all teachers at the pre-primary level are women, however they make up less than half of the teaching force at tertiary level.
    • Salaries tend to increase with the level of education taught, but teachers' earnings remain between 78% and 93% of the earnings of other tertiary-educated adults.
    Visualisations
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Estonia

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.