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Estonia
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Estonia
Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • While education in Estonia is compulsory for 7-16 year-olds, more than 90% of students are enrolled from the age of 4 to 17. From primary to upper secondary school, almost all students are enrolled in public institutions: 95% of primary pupils, 96% of lower secondary and 97% of upper secondary students.
  • Some 38% of 25-64 year-olds held a tertiary qualification in 2014 (OECD average: 32%). Estonia has a long tradition of tertiary education: 36% of 55-64 year-olds have a tertiary qualification (OECD average: 25%). Some 68% of national students are expected to enter a bachelor's programme over their lifetime (OECD average: 55%) and 24% are expected to enter master's programme (OECD average: 19%).
  • Some 81% of tertiary-educated 25-34 year-olds were employed in 2014, compared with 77% of tertiary-educated 55-64 year-olds. This is one of the smallest differences among the OECD countries. The employment rate varies from 40% among 25-64 year-olds with only primary education, to 95% among 25-64 year-olds with a doctorate degree. In 2014, a tertiary-educated 25-64 year-old earned 35% more, on average, than a 25-64 year-old who had completed upper secondary education (OECD average: 60%).
  • While women in Estonia tend to reach higher levels of education than men, their salaries lag behind. Some 46% of women in Estonia have attained tertiary education (OECD average: 38%); but 35-44 year-old tertiary-educated women who work full time earn 63% of the average earnings of their tertiary-educated male counterparts.
  • Half of Estonia's teaching force in secondary education is 50 or older, and 19% is aged 60 or older (the highest share among OECD and partner countries). Between 2005 and 2013, teachers' salaries increased by 31%. Classes are relatively small, with 15 students per class in lower secondary school and 17 students in primary schools classes (OECD average: 24 and 21 students, respectively).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 %, rank 3/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.7 %, rank 5/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.6 %, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 %, rank 5/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90 %, rank 4/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 1/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44 %, rank 6/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    Estonia has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (20 %, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    Estonia has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (16 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    Estonia has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (24 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Estonia has a large share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (60 Index, rank 1/40 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-old men in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.4 %, rank 28/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.9 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young nationals expected to enter a bachelor's or equivalent programme during their lifetime is comparatively high. (68 %, rank 4/22 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Estonia is one of the highest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (61.2 %, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    Estonia has one of the highest percentages of students enrolled in public upper secondary institutions. (96.6 %, rank 6/39 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young nationals expected to enter bachelor's or equivalent programmes before turning 25-years-old is among the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (54.9 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (26.9 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (23.3 %, rank 15/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (24.8 %, rank 7/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (18.3 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (34.7 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of male graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (67.5 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (13.7 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in sciences from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (27.2 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (95 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the humanities and arts is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (76.2 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (90.1 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in social sciences, business and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (71 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the lowest among other countries with available data. (35.4 %, rank 17/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (130 Index, rank 10/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively small. (105 Index, rank 23/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively small. (81 Index, rank 28/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (163 Index, rank 1/28 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (158 Index, rank 4/29 ) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the change in GDP between 2010 and 2012 is comparatively large. (113 Index, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 34/36 ) Download Indicator

    Public expenditure on educational institutions from primary through post-secondary non-tertiary level is one of the highest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.1 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (88 Index, rank 22/23 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in government-dependent private institutions for a master's or equivalent level education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 4/6 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in government-dependent private institutions for a bachelor's or equivalent level education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 5/7 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the smallest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (86 Index, rank 30/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively small. (98 Index, rank 23/30 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries with available data, Estonia has one of the largest shares of public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions. (93.4 %, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Students, rank 32/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 Students, rank 28/37 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13233 USD Equivalent, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13233 USD Equivalent, rank 30/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13233 USD Equivalent, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.84 Ratio, rank 7/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.84 Ratio, rank 10/20 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for primary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Estonia. (131 Index, rank 2/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Estonia. (131 Index, rank 1/25 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2003 and 2013 in statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Estonia. (131 Index, rank 1/24 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Estonia. (619 Hours, rank 29/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary school is especially large. (220 Days, rank 4/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Estonia. (1320 Hours, rank 4/26 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (29.2 %, rank 33/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (24.7 %, rank 31/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (26.5 %, rank 27/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (25.7 %, rank 32/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (18.7 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially low. (13004 USD Equivalent, rank 30/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (13233 USD Equivalent, rank 31/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (17015 USD Equivalent, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 39 in secondary schools is especially low. (17.5 %, rank 34/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 40 and 49 in secondary schools is especially low. (24.7 %, rank 30/35 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (13004 USD Equivalent, rank 31/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (13233 USD Equivalent, rank 31/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (17015 USD Equivalent, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (13004 USD Equivalent, rank 30/34 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (13233 USD Equivalent, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (17015 USD Equivalent, rank 29/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23 USD Equivalent, rank 25/28 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.31 Ratio, rank 26/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.31 Ratio, rank 26/31 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers less time to progress through the salary scale in Estonia compared to other OECD and partner countries. (7 Years, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21 USD Equivalent, rank 28/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21 USD Equivalent, rank 30/30 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12009 USD Equivalent, rank 21/21 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17141 USD Equivalent, rank 21/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17141 USD Equivalent, rank 21/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17141 USD Equivalent, rank 24/24 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.5 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 7/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.1 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels), Estonia has one of the lowest percentages of those with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills. (26.5 %, rank 14/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report having the computer skills needed to do their job is quite high. (86.2 %, rank 10/15 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Classes are particularly small in lower secondary schools. (15 Students, rank 30/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in primary schools. (17 Students, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Years, rank 7/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (175 Days, rank 26/34 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (175 Days, rank 28/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively small in Estonia. (17 Students, rank 32/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively small in Estonia. (16 Students, rank 27/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively small in Estonia. (15 Students, rank 31/32 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Estonia. (12 Students, rank 29/31 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (42.4 %, rank 4/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (26.3 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (40.2 %, rank 6/24 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (92 Index, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (91 Index, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (136 Index, rank 32/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (135 Index, rank 30/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in sciences and engineering is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (59.5 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of education, humanities and social sciences is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (93.1 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of sciences and engineering is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (33.1 %, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the fields of health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (94.1 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (94.6 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is one the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (5.7 %, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.
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