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Diagram of the education system



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  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Spain

    Spain
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • In Spain, and in a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. About 97% of 3-, 4- and 5-year-old Spanish children are already enrolled in pre-primary education.
  • The proportion of 25-64 year-olds in Spain with tertiary education (35%) is slightly higher than the average across OECD countries (34%). Upward mobility to tertiary education has been particularly important among 25-34 year-old Spanish women. About a third attained tertiary education even though their parents haven't (the OECD average is 26%).
  • In Spain, 14% of lower secondary teachers reported they have a high need for professional development in ICT skills for teaching - less than the OECD average (18%) but larger than the proportion of teachers in Portugal who so reported (9%).
  • Spanish adults with tertiary education are 24 percentage points more likely than those with only upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings. This is similar to the average across participating countries (23 percentage points more likely).
  • On average, across OECD countries, there is a difference of 20 percentage points in the employment rate of men and women without upper secondary education while the gap is 9 percentage points for those with tertiary education. In Spain, differences are smaller and also decrease as the level of education increases. The gender gap is 17 percentage points for those without upper secondary education and 7 for those with tertiary education.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57 %, rank 33/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66 %, rank 34/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39 %, rank 32/41 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Spain, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71 %, rank 25/28 ) Download Indicator

    Spain has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (20 Index, rank 9/30 ) Download Indicator

    Spain has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (18 Index, rank 30/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (22 %, rank 7/33 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, the percentage of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (21 %, rank 3/24 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Spain has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (19 %, rank 3/21 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Spain has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (52 Index, rank 9/23 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Spain has one of the lowest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (55 Index, rank 19/24 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96 %, rank 8/37 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (41 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (31 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively low. (10 %, rank 17/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (48 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (28 %, rank 1/19 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (34 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (34 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults in tertiary education whose parents had not attained upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (58 %, rank 1/19 ) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the proportion of women among 25-34 year-old first generation tertiary-educated non-students is quite high compared to other countries. (63 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female graduates in the humanities and arts from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries . (42 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in the humanities and arts from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (27 %, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male graduates in health and welfare from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (8 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    In Spain, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1059 Hours, rank 5/23 ) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Spain is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4234 Hours, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Spain, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4234 Hours, rank 3/23 ) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Spain is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8991 Hours, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Spain, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8991 Hours, rank 2/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Spain, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1059 Hours, rank 5/34 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Years, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (175 Days, rank 26/34 ) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (175 Days, rank 28/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively large in Spain. (24 Students, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Spain. (26 Students, rank 7/31 ) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Ratio, rank 23/27 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (107 Index, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively small. (99 Index, rank 22/28 ) Download Indicator

    In Spain, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (8 %, rank 30/32 ) Download Indicator

    In Spain, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 31/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change in private expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (192 Index, rank 3/22 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (140 Index, rank 5/23 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the smallest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (91 Index, rank 27/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively small. (88 Index, rank 28/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 24/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Spain. (880 Hours, rank 7/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively low in Spain. (12 Ratio, rank 13/18 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (29 %, rank 27/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (29 %, rank 30/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers younger than 30 in secondary schools is among the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 32/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 40 and 49 in secondary schools is especially high. (37 %, rank 4/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 %, rank 29/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76 %, rank 30/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58 %, rank 28/37 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45 %, rank 14/20 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42187 USD Equivalent, rank 8/26 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (36422 USD Equivalent, rank 9/35 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (40488 USD Equivalent, rank 5/35 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (40752 USD Equivalent, rank 5/34 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (36422 USD Equivalent, rank 7/29 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (39468 USD Equivalent, rank 9/27 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (51265 USD Equivalent, rank 8/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 17/26 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Spain compared to other OECD and partner countries. (38 Years, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (77 %, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (49 %, rank 28/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (66 %, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (81 %, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (74 %, rank 31/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (37 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (26 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (19 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (27 %, rank 1/35 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (17 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (9 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (31 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (22 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (14 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (30 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (19 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively high. (12 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (33 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (24 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (15 %, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively high. (57 %, rank 3/25 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (79 %, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (84 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (54 Index, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in the fields of education, humanities and social sciences is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (19 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is one the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (17 %, rank 1/25 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (13 %, rank 3/38 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (12 %, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (8 %, rank 1/12 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (23 %, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (21 %, rank 2/27 ) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (117 Index, rank 3/13 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 15-19 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Spain. (12 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Spain. (29 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Spain. (32 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 15-29 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively large in Spain. (26 %, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-old men who are not in education, are unemployed and are not in the labour force in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds without an upper secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Spain. (33 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-29 year-olds with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively high in Spain. (21 %, rank 5/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 3/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 20-24 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-29 year-old men who are neither employed nor in education or training in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 year-old women who are neither employed nor in education or training in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.