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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in Denmark

    Denmark
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2019)
  • The average employment advantage for Danish tertiary-educated adults is only 5 percentage points over those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to 9 percentage points on average across OECD countries. This is mostly due to the comparatively very high employment rate of adults with upper secondary education in Denmark.
  • Danish women are under-represented among graduates from engineering, manufacturing and construction (10%) at upper secondary vocational level but make up a significant share of graduates in health and welfare (87%).
  • In Denmark, a strong culture of early childhood education and care (ECEC) exists even for very young children: in 2017, 39% of children under 2 were enrolled in ECEC services in Denmark, the third highest among OECD countries and compared to 21% on average across OECD countries.
  • Lower secondary teachers' starting statutory salaries (USD 49 482) are above the OECD average (USD 34 094) but teachers' salaries do not increase as quickly during the course of their careers as they do on average across the OECD.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.4 %, rank 33/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 6/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (28.1 Years, rank 6/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (19.3 Years, rank 8/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (26.4 %, rank 9/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (19.9 %, rank 26/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.8 %, rank 23/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (11.7 %, rank 26/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with below upper secondary education participating in formal education is high in Denmark. (8.3 %, rank 7/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with tertiary education participating in formal education is high in Denmark. (18.1 %, rank 7/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.5 %, rank 7/40 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of tertiary students enrolled in private institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 %, rank 44/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of part-time students in bachelor's programmes is relatively small. (11.9 %, rank 21/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of part-time students in master's programmes is relatively small. (6.9 %, rank 24/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of part-time students in doctoral programmes in Denmark is relatively small. (0 %, rank 23/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme in Denmark ranks as one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 2/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from post-secondary non-tertiary education during their lifetime is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 22/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Denmark has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (52.5 %, rank 2/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (33.9 %, rank 1/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Denmark has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (2 %, rank 2/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    In Denmark, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (38.4 %, rank 37/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Denmark is relatively low. (40.3 %, rank 21/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.3 %, rank 8/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.9 %, rank 5/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in Denmark is relatively small. (0 %, rank 45/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Denmark is relatively small. (0 %, rank 45/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of information and communication technologies in Denmark is relatively small. (0 %, rank 42/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Denmark is relatively large. (23.6 %, rank 5/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (0 %, rank 25/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (0 %, rank 23/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively low. (0.8 %, rank 23/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Denmark, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of education is relatively low. (5.5 %, rank 30/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64 %, rank 33/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61.7 %, rank 30/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.9 %, rank 30/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Denmark has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.8 %, rank 10/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Students, rank 6/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, international students from Europe are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.5 %, rank 5/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, international students from Oceania are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 8/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Denmark is relatively high. (20.4 %, rank 8/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 30/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 29/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Denmark, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1051 Hours, rank 3/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1200 Hours, rank 1/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Tuition fees

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in government dependent private institutions for a master's or equivalent level education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 5/8 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of students who do not benefit from public/government-guaranteed private loans or public scholarships/grants is comparatively high. (13.9 %, rank 9/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88.5 %, rank 39/40 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (1.4 %, rank 32/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58349 USD Equivalent, rank 7/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.68 Ratio, rank 15/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.82 Ratio, rank 20/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55793 USD Equivalent, rank 5/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58349 USD Equivalent, rank 8/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Denmark. (0.97 Ratio, rank 9/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 45-54 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Denmark. (0.74 Ratio, rank 17/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Denmark. (0.81 Ratio, rank 10/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Denmark relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (51110 USD Equivalent, rank 3/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Denmark. (59073 USD Equivalent, rank 4/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.18 Ratio, rank 31/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (48989 USD Equivalent, rank 4/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (49482 USD Equivalent, rank 4/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (54756 USD Equivalent, rank 7/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.13 Ratio, rank 27/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.17 Ratio, rank 32/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 Ratio, rank 29/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers less time to progress through the salary scale in Denmark compared to other OECD and partner countries. (12 Years, rank 22/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In pre-primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.13 Ratio, rank 27/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.17 Ratio, rank 33/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.18 Ratio, rank 33/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.3 Ratio, rank 32/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Pre-primary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Denmark. (0.87 Ratio, rank 15/18 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Lower-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Denmark. (1.15 Ratio, rank 14/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average lower secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (78304 USD Equivalent, rank 5/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1.6 %, rank 18/21 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Denmark, compared to other OECD countries. (30.9 %, rank 10/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (35.4 %, rank 28/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (19.9 %, rank 23/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (59.2 %, rank 27/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (75.1 %, rank 24/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (131 Index, rank 33/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (123 Index, rank 35/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (125 Index, rank 35/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83.1 %, rank 7/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (114 Index, rank 31/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (148 Index, rank 29/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (113 Index, rank 33/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (146 Index, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (123 Index, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (128 Index, rank 35/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a Bachelor's or equivalent education are comparatively low. (110 Index, rank 32/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (76.2 %, rank 6/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (130.2 %, rank 1/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (111.9 %, rank 3/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (106.7 %, rank 12/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (116.4 %, rank 7/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of health and welfare are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (84.5 %, rank 14/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The proportion of 15-19 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Denmark. (3.5 %, rank 31/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 years-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.7 %, rank 31/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 15-19 years-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.3 %, rank 32/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Migrant background

    The employment rate of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 and without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (52.7 %, rank 22/27 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born aged between 15 and 29 and who are not in education and employed is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.7 %, rank 26/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born aged between 15 and 29 and who are not in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.2 %, rank 26/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of native-born aged between 15 and 29 who are not in education and employed is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.8 %, rank 27/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of native-born 15-29 year-olds neither employed nor in education and training is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.1 %, rank 21/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of native-born 15-29 year-olds not in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (41 %, rank 29/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with below upper secondary education who get together with friends at least once a week is one of the lowest in Denmark. (38.1 %, rank 26/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who get together with friends at least once a week is one of the lowest in Denmark. (33.4 %, rank 25/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with tertiary education who get together with friends at least once a week is one of the lowest in Denmark. (37.3 %, rank 25/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, a large share of adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education participated in formal voluntary activities in the 12 months prior to the survey. (32.8 %, rank 2/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, a large share of adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education participated in formal voluntary activities in the 12 months prior to the survey. (43.3 %, rank 6/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the percentage of adults (25-64 years old) with below upper secondary education who actively participate in social media on a daily basis is high in Denmark. (35.6 %, rank 7/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the percentage of adults (25-64 years old) with tertiary education who actively participate in social media on a daily basis is high in Denmark. (44.6 %, rank 8/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed adults (25-64 years-old) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, a small share have difficulties to fulfill their family responsabilities because of their jobs, compared to other countries with available data. (32.4 %, rank 30/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education, a small share have difficulties to fulfill their family responsabilities because of their jobs, compared to other countries with available data. (43.7 %, rank 25/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of employed adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education who have concentration difficulties at work because of family responsabilities is low in Denmark. (24.1 %, rank 26/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Weekly working hours among employed 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education are short in Denmark compared to other OECD countries. (35.4 Hours/week, rank 22/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Weekly working hours among employed 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are short in Denmark compared to other OECD countries. (37.9 Hours/week, rank 23/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education, a large share have high flexibility of working hours. (31.9 %, rank 5/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education, a large share have high flexibility of working hours. (43.3 %, rank 5/28 , 2015) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • In 2018, 44% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 35% in 2008, on average across OECD countries.
    • Tertiary-educated adults also reap higher earnings, although this varies by field of study. Their advantage increases with age too: 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education earn 38% more than their peers with upper secondary education while 45-54 year-olds earn 70% more.
    • While engineering, manufacturing and construction, and information and communication technologies are two fields most commonly associated with the best labour market outcomes, only 14% of graduates earned a degree in the former and 4% earned a degree in the latter in 2017.
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    • Although graduation from upper secondary education increased by 6 percentage points between 2005 and 2017, 15% of 25-34 year-olds did not attain upper secondary education in 2018, on average across OECD countries.
    • In some countries, vocational programmes are prominent at the upper secondary level. On average across OECD countries, 40% of first-time upper secondary graduates earned a vocational qualification in 2017; in Austria, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia, more than 66% of this population did.
    • At the lower secondary level, the average class shrank by 6% while teachers' statutory salaries increased by 8% between 2005 and 2017, on average across OECD countries.
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    • In 2017, more than one in three children under the age of three were enrolled in early childhood education and care services, on average across OECD countries - an increase of 7 percentage points compared to 2010.
    • Between the age of 3 to 5, on average across OECD countries, 87% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education.
    • Annual expenditure per child in early childhood development programmes was greater than in pre-primary education in 2016 on average across OECD countries. However, as a share of GDP, expenditure on early childhood development is lower.
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    • In 2016, expenditure per tertiary student amounted to USD 15 556, approximately one-third of which was devoted to research and development.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at the tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
    • OECD countries spent an average of 3.5% of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary institutions in 2016, and public expenditure at this level increased by 18% since 2005.
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    • About 10% of primary and secondary teachers are under the age of 30, on average across OECD countries.
    • While the teaching profession is dominated by women, the share of female teachers decreases with the level of education taught: almost all teachers at the pre-primary level are women, however they make up less than half of the teaching force at tertiary level.
    • Salaries tend to increase with the level of education taught, but teachers' earnings remain between 78% and 93% of the earnings of other tertiary-educated adults.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Denmark

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.