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Denmark
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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

Education system in Denmark

Denmark
Overview of the education system (EAG 2016)
  • Denmark spends one of the highest shares of its wealth on primary to tertiary education among OECD countries, with expenditure reaching 6.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) in 2013, up from 5.8% in 2008.
  • Despite a 3% increase in expenditure on tertiary education between 2008 and 2013, a dramatic increase in enrolment rates over the same period resulted in a 25% fall in expenditure per student at the tertiary level.
  • Denmark is an attractive destination for internationally mobile students: Denmark’s share of international students is higher than or equivalent to the OECD average at all tertiary levels.
  • The gender distribution of teachers in primary and secondary education is more balanced than the OECD averages: 69% of teachers at the primary level are female, compared to the OECD average of 82%, and at the upper secondary level, the gender ratio is nearly evenly split with 49% female teachers compared with 58% on average for the OECD.
  • As of 2014, 42% of upper secondary students in Denmark were enrolled in vocational programmes, in which virtually all students participated in combined school- and-work-based programmes.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Participation in education

    In Denmark, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 7/37 ) Download Indicator

    Denmark has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (54 %, rank 3/38 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (26 %, rank 3/38 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Denmark has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (2 %, rank 4/27 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Denmark has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (64 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Denmark has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (56 %, rank 3/24 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Denmark has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (47 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 20-29 year-olds in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96 %, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97 %, rank 7/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Denmark is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3600 Hours, rank 7/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3600 Hours, rank 4/24 ) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Denmark is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10960 Hours, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10960 Hours, rank 1/24 ) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1051 Hours, rank 1/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1051 Hours, rank 2/24 ) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1200 Hours, rank 1/34 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Years, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 Years, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12294 USD Equivalent, rank 8/36 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11355 USD Equivalent, rank 4/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 33/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 33/37 ) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (13 %, rank 10/34 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (138 Index, rank 4/27 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 Students, rank 26/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Students, rank 28/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 33/40 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Denmark. (663 Hours, rank 23/30 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively small in Denmark. (386 Hours, rank 30/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53226 USD Equivalent, rank 7/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58317 USD Equivalent, rank 5/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45898 USD Equivalent, rank 6/23 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52481 USD Equivalent, rank 7/29 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 7/19 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 7/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 9/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 5/22 ) Download Indicator

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 30/31 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (45909 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (51141 USD Equivalent, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (46188 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (51826 USD Equivalent, rank 7/30 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (46033 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (58317 USD Equivalent, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (40437 USD Equivalent, rank 3/26 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (45898 USD Equivalent, rank 5/24 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32 USD Equivalent, rank 11/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 23/25 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 31/31 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 28/31 ) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers less time to progress through the salary scale in Denmark compared to other OECD and partner countries. (12 Years, rank 24/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79 USD Equivalent, rank 4/28 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (80 USD Equivalent, rank 7/29 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46823 USD Equivalent, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55635 USD Equivalent, rank 3/23 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56319 USD Equivalent, rank 5/23 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64443 USD Equivalent, rank 4/23 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (131 Index, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (123 Index, rank 37/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (126 Index, rank 36/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (109 Index, rank 22/25 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (114 Index, rank 27/29 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (150 Index, rank 26/29 ) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    • Labour market outcomes are better among the higher-educated: on average across OECD countries, the unemployment rate is 12.4% for adults with below upper secondary education, while it is 4.9% for the tertiary-educated.
    • In all OECD countries, earnings differentials between adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education are generally more pronounced than the difference between the earnings of those with upper secondary education and those with below upper secondary education. This suggests large earnings advantages for tertiary education. On average, adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree earn almost twice as those with upper secondary education across OECD countries, and those with a bachelor's or equivalent degree earn 48% more, while those with a short-cycle tertiary degree earn only about 20% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
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    • Across all levels of educational attainment, the gender gap in earnings persists, and although women generally have higher educational attainment, a large gender gap in earnings is seen between male and female full-time workers with tertiary education.
    • Across OECD_countries, tertiary-educated women earn only 73% as much as tertiary-educated men. This gender gap of 27% in earnings for tertiary-educated adults is higher than the gender gap for adults with below upper secondary (24%) and adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (22%).
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5-years-old. Some 71% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that an average of 85% of today's young people in OECD_countries will complete upper secondary education over their lifetime.
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    • Based on current patterns of graduation, an average of 36% of today's young people across OECD countries are expected to graduate from tertiary education at least once before the age of 30.
    • In 2014, a majority of first-time tertiary graduates (72%) earned a bachelor's degree, 12% earned a_master's degree and 16% earned a short-cycle tertiary diploma, on average across OECD countries.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 493 per student per year on primary through tertiary educational institutions: USD 8 477 per primary student, USD 9 980 per lower secondary student, USD 9 990 per upper secondary student and USD 15 772 per tertiary student.
    • In 2013, OECD countries spent an average of 5.2% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education, ranging from 3.5% in Luxembourg to 6.7% in the United Kingdom.
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    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 23 in lower secondary education. These figures represent a decrease when compared to the OECD_average class sizes in 2005.
    • The difference in average class size between public and private institutions in primary education varies substantially across OECD countries, but is considerably larger in partner countries.
    • There are 15 students per teacher in primary education, on average across OECD countries. The_figure increases to 17 students per teacher, on average, at the tertiary level.
    • On average across OECD countries, pre-primary teachers' actual salaries are 74% of the earnings of a tertiary-educated 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker. Primary teachers are paid 81% of these benchmark earnings, lower secondary teachers 85% and upper secondary teachers 89%.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.