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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in Germany

    Germany
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2018)
  • Early childhood education and care (ECEC) has experienced a surge of policy attention in Germany in recent decades. In 2016, 37% of children under the age of 3 were enrolled in ECEC, an increase of 20 percentage points over 2005. In Germany, 49% of children below the age of 3 with tertiary-educated mothers participate to ECEC compared to only 37% for children whose mothers have not attained tertiary education.
  • In Germany, most young adults leave school with at least an upper secondary qualification education, but the penalties for those without baseline qualifications are severe. In 2017, 13% of 25-34 year-olds had left school without an upper secondary qualification and 15% of them are unemployed, five times the rate for those with at least upper secondary education (3%).
  • About one in ten 15-29 year-olds are neither employed nor in education or training (NEET) which is one of the lowest shares across OECD countries. However, among young adults born outside Germany one in four are NEET, a number certainly also influenced by the high influx of young refugees in recent years who are still in the process of being integrated.
  • Tertiary entry rates are rising in Germany, with well over half of all young adults entering tertiary education. For those who do not go on to tertiary education, vocational qualifications offer a surer route to employment in Germany. Employment rates among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary education – mostly vocational graduates – are almost as high as for those with a tertiary education (83% compared with 87%).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.6 %, rank 5/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.9 %, rank 6/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.6 %, rank 2/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.3 %, rank 37/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.5 %, rank 33/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 6/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (40.6 %, rank 31/39 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Germany has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (2.3 %, rank 1/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (38.3 %, rank 22/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.9 %, rank 10/43 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the number of expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 is comparatively high. (7.9 %, rank 6/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the number of expected years in education for men between ages 15 and 29 is comparatively high. (7.9 %, rank 5/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the number of expected years in education for women between ages 15 and 29 is comparatively high. (7.9 %, rank 9/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 25-29 year-olds in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.9 %, rank 7/40 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the average age of new entrants into doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.1 Years, rank 26/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The share of 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education among those whose parents have not attained upper secondary education is comparatively low in Germany. (14.8 %, rank 18/27 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education among those for whom at least one parent has also attained tertiary education is comparatively low in Germany. (57.7 %, rank 23/27 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Germany, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high. (24.2 %, rank 10/34 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (9.9 %, rank 4/34 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively high. (6.3 %, rank 6/34 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high. (23.3 %, rank 3/34 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in of the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46 %, rank 27/33 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in of the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71 %, rank 26/33 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of new female entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Germany is relatively high. (24.9 %, rank 8/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of new male entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics ans statistics in Germany is relatively high. (26.1 %, rank 10/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Germany is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 5/46 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering doctorate or equivalent programmes in Germany is relatively small. (14.4 %, rank 24/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    School climate

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.09 Ratio, rank 17/21 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12139 USD Equivalent, rank 10/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9827 USD Equivalent, rank 8/31 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11791 USD Equivalent, rank 10/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10736 USD Equivalent, rank 6/18 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.1 %, rank 9/35 , 2013) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7018 USD Equivalent, rank 6/34 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core and ancillary services, from primary to tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12139 USD Equivalent, rank 10/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Germany, total public expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (78.9 %, rank 23/31 , 2014) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Germany, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies. (4.2 %, rank 28/37 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Germany, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (0.6 %, rank 36/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Germany, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1.2 %, rank 28/37 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Germany, government expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.6 %, rank 32/39 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Germany, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for primary to tertiary education is comparatively low. (93.5 %, rank 20/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13 %, rank 9/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.3 %, rank 27/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Public expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (80.9 %, rank 26/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (114 Index, rank 6/27 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the smallest shares of public expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (87 %, rank 28/37 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Change in public expenditure (including subsidies to households) on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education as a percentage of total public expenditure between 2011 and 2015 in Germany is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 Index, rank 16/20 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Germany. (747 Hours, rank 10/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary school is especially large. (225 Days, rank 1/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Germany. (1755 Hours, rank 1/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.1 %, rank 28/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (49.8 %, rank 28/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (43.3 %, rank 6/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76838 USD Equivalent, rank 2/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (81260 USD Equivalent, rank 2/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70693 USD Equivalent, rank 2/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 Ratio, rank 7/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.99 Ratio, rank 4/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.05 Ratio, rank 6/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65716 USD Equivalent, rank 2/28 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72593 USD Equivalent, rank 2/28 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76823 USD Equivalent, rank 2/28 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.33 Ratio, rank 27/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.31 Ratio, rank 27/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76838 USD Equivalent, rank 2/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (81260 USD Equivalent, rank 2/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70693 USD Equivalent, rank 2/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (88.6 %, rank 6/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (81.6 %, rank 7/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.8 %, rank 39/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.8 %, rank 35/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.3 %, rank 35/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (2 %, rank 41/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (82.6 %, rank 6/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.4 %, rank 34/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.1 %, rank 28/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Germany. (82.9 %, rank 8/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (84.4 %, rank 4/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (79.3 %, rank 28/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively high. (169 Index, rank 10/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively high. (151 Index, rank 2/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a Bachelor's or equivalent education are comparatively high. (165 Index, rank 9/32 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Germany. (10.1 %, rank 35/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Migrant background

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.7 %, rank 26/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.6 %, rank 21/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (90.8 %, rank 5/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full-time full-year earners with below upper secondary education are comparatively high. (118 Index, rank 1/19 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born 15-29 year-olds neither employed nor in education and training is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.1 %, rank 6/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of native-born 15-29 year-olds in education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.7 %, rank 5/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of native-born 15-29 year-olds neither employed nor in education and training is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.6 %, rank 27/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Governance

    The percentage of decisions taken at the central level of government for public lower secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (0 %, rank 27/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of decisions taken at the central level or state level of government for public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (62.5 %, rank 5/16 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of decisions taken at the regional or sub-regional level of government for public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (20.8 %, rank 3/16 , 2017) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • Adults without tertiary-educated parents face greater challenges to attain tertiary level themselves: Only 21% do compared to 68% among those with at least one tertiary-educated parent.
    • While there is little difference on average between the level of tertiary attainment among native-born and foreign-born adults, there are large variations across countries. In Mexico the tertiary attainment of foreign-born adults is more than double that of native-born. In contrast, native-born adults in Slovenia are almost twice more likely to have attained tertiary education than their foreign-born peers.
    • The gender gap favors girls in education but men in the labour market: 50% of 25-34 year-old women attained tertiary education in 2017 compared to 38% of men. However the employment rate of tertiary-educated young women is about 9 percentage points less than for men and they earn only 74% as much as men with similar educational attainment on average across OECD countries.
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    • In 2015, OECD countries spent on average around 5% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions from primary to tertiary levels , with variations across countries from 3.1% in the Russian Federation to 6.4% in Norway.
    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 391 a year on educational institutions to educate each student from primary to tertiary education. This represents about USD 8 600 per student at primary level, USD 9 900 at secondary level and USD 15 500 at tertiary level.
    • Primary and secondary education accounts for almost 70% of total expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions, or around 3.5% of GDP, on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2015, public funding represented more than 80% of total expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions across the OECD countries, varying from 62% in Colombia to 99% in Norway. However only two thirds of total expenditure is financed through public sources on tertiary institutions on average across OECD countries.
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    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • While the teaching profession is dominated by women, the share of female teachers decreases with the level of education taught: almost all teachers at the pre-primary level are women; however they make up less than half of the teaching force at tertiary level.
    • On average across OECD countries, statutory salaries of teachers at the top of their salary scales (and maximum qualifications) are between 77% and 81% higher than starting salaries (with minimum qualifications).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 82% to 96% of earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries.
    • While the average actual salary of primary and secondary female teachers is equal to or higher than the average earnings of full-time, tertiary-educated working women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 77% and 88% of the average earnings of full-time, tertiary-educated working men.
    • Based on official regulations, public school teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 1 030 hours per year at pre-primary level, 771 hours at primary level, 693 hours at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 646 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • On average across OECD countries, there are 15 students per teacher in primary education, 13 students per teacher in secondary education and 15 students per teacher in tertiary education.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 75% of children aged 3 are enrolled in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC).
    • At age 4, on average across OECD countries, almost 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary education.
    • Annual expenditure per child in early childhood development programmes was greater than in pre-primary education in 2015 on average across OECD countries.
    • Public funds represent a higher share of total expenditure at pre-primary level than on early childhood development programmes.
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    • The share of first-time upper secondary graduates with a vocational qualification varied from 6% in Canada to 78% in Austria in 2016 with an average of 41% across OECD countries.
    • In 2016, across OECD countries, teaching hours for upper secondary, general programmes vary greatly from 405 hours in Denmark to 1064 hours in Chile with an average of 655 hours.
    • In 2016, the ratio of students to teaching staff in public upper secondary educational institutions across OECD countries varies from 9 in Portugal to 22 in Mexico with an average of 13 across OECD countries.
    • The employment rate for adults with upper secondary education is 18 percentage points higher than for those without. The employment advantage varies from 6 percentage points in Mexico to more than 30 percentage points in the Czech and Slovak Republics.
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    • Between 2007 and 2017, the share of tertiary-educated young adults increased by 10 percentage points on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2015, OECD countries spent on average around 1.5% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on tertiary educational institutions, ranging from 0.5% in Luxembourg to 2.6% in the United States.
    • On average in OECD countries, 59% of young adults will enter a bachelor's degree or equivalent programme in their lifetime while 24% are expected to enter a master's or equivalent programme.
    • While there are large variations across countries, international and foreign students account for 6% of total enrolment in tertiary programmes and reach more than a quarter of enrolments at doctoral level on average across OECD countries.
    • Tertiary-educated adults are more likely to be employed and earn about 55% more than those with upper secondary education on average across OECD countries.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Germany

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2017 for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.