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Germany
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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

Education system in Germany

Germany
Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Three out of five 2-year-olds are already enrolled in early childhood education (OECD average: 39%) and most 3-year-olds (92%) are enrolled in pre-primary education (OECD average: 74%)
  • Most adults in Germany have completed upper secondary education. 87% of 25-64 year-olds have attained at least upper secondary education (OECD average: 76%) and 57% have earned a vocational qualification (OECD average: 26%), most of them in a dual system that combines school and work.
  • Tertiary entry rates are rising in Germany, the percentage of new entrants in 2013 was 59% versus 44% in 2006 but graduation rates are low for bachelors, 48% (OECD average: 57%) but 25% are expected to enter master's level (OECD average: 22%) and 5.4% for doctoral level (OECD average: 2.4%).
  • Transition from school to work is smoother than in most OECD countries, the proportion of young people who are neither in employment nor in education or training (NEET) is 10.1% among 20-24 year-olds (OECD average: 17.9%).
  • In Germany, only 14% of 25-34 year-olds surpassed their parents' educational attainment when they themselves attained tertiary education (OECD average: 22%), this is due in part to the large share of students choosing vocational education and to the already large proportion of tertiary-educated older adults.
  • The annual expenditure per student in Germany ranges from USD 7 749 at the primary level (OECD average: USD 8 247), to USD 17 157 at the tertiary level (OECD average: USD 15 028), representing 4.4% of GDP on primary to tertiary education (OECD average: 5.3%).
  • German teachers have one of the highest salaries, are one of the oldest teaching forces (after Italy) and have a long working time. Even after 15 years of experience, salaries are still among the highest, at all education levels. In 2013, 49% of secondary school teachers were 50 or older (OECD average: 35%). The total working time for teachers in Germany at all levels of initial education was 1768 hours (OECD average: 1600 hours).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87 %, rank 10/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59 %, rank 4/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60 %, rank 4/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28 %, rank 31/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57 %, rank 2/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90 %, rank 3/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (2 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctorate or equivalent programme in Germany ranks as one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 6/40 ) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (0 Index, rank 30/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Germany has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (2 %, rank 3/24 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Germany has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education before the age of 30. (2 %, rank 2/21 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (36 Index, rank 21/23 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (35 Index, rank 18/19 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (26 %, rank 15/16 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (51 Index, rank 21/24 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the highest among countries with available data. (87 %, rank 3/21 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates from short-cycle tertiary programmes is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (75 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    In Germany the percentage of young people expected to enter short-cycle tertiary programmes during their lifetimes is comparatively low. (0 %, rank 30/30 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-old men in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 5/36 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in full-time education for 5-39 year-old men in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18 Years, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in full-time education for 5-39 year-old women in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18 Years, rank 5/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of young people expected to enter a doctorate or equivalent programme during their lifetime in Germany is relatively high. (5 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of young nationals expected to enter a doctorate or equivalent programme during their lifetime is high compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 %, rank 1/22 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Germany is comparatively large. (77 %, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students younger than 30-years-old entering master's or equivalent programmes in Germany is comparatively high. (91 %, rank 5/31 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (24 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (19 %, rank 19/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (57 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (34 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (21 %, rank 9/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (22 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (60 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (34 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (26 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (34 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults in tertiary education whose parents have attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (94 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of men among 25-34 year-old first generation tertiary-educated non-students is quite high compared to other countries. (54 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female graduates in social sciences, business and law from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (54 %, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Germany is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4531 Hours, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Germany, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4531 Hours, rank 1/23 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 Years, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Years, rank 7/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 Years, rank 31/36 ) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Ratio, rank 24/27 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    Among 25-64 year-old adults who reported that they are required to complete complex ICT (information and communication technologies) tasks at work, the percentage of adults with good ICT and problem-solving skills is relatively high. (75 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires straightforward ICT skills is relatively high. (28 %, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of education is quite high. (49 %, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8568 USD Equivalent, rank 10/28 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 10/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 27/35 ) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively high. (4047 USD Equivalent, rank 4/26 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7132 USD Equivalent, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 25/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Students, rank 28/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Germany. (752 Hours, rank 8/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in upper secondary school is especially large. (192 Days, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively low in Germany. (15 Ratio, rank 11/18 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high in Germany. (13 Ratio, rank 10/15 ) Download Indicator

    Among 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels), Germany has one of the highest percentages of those with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills. (48 %, rank 9/15 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-old teachers (teaching both pre-primary and primary school, primary and secondary levels) who report that moderate or complex ICT(information and communication technologies) skills are required at work is relatively low. (66 %, rank 11/15 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (30 %, rank 32/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (27 %, rank 29/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (26 %, rank 28/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (27 %, rank 31/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (14 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers younger than 30 in secondary schools is among the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 26/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 39 in secondary schools is especially low. (20 %, rank 30/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 40 and 49 in secondary schools is especially low. (25 %, rank 28/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56 %, rank 9/16 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 %, rank 17/20 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38 %, rank 23/31 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38 %, rank 26/32 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65 %, rank 20/28 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68698 USD Equivalent, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73644 USD Equivalent, rank 2/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63221 USD Equivalent, rank 2/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (51389 USD Equivalent, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (60449 USD Equivalent, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (67413 USD Equivalent, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (56757 USD Equivalent, rank 3/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (65843 USD Equivalent, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (74744 USD Equivalent, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (61317 USD Equivalent, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (70474 USD Equivalent, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (84648 USD Equivalent, rank 3/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (103 USD Equivalent, rank 3/28 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 25/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 23/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79 USD Equivalent, rank 4/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 USD Equivalent, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60618 USD Equivalent, rank 2/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66510 USD Equivalent, rank 2/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72521 USD Equivalent, rank 3/24 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (88 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (80 %, rank 7/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively high. (91 %, rank 7/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (76 %, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (84 %, rank 7/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (5 %, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (3 %, rank 34/37 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from post-secondary non-tertiary education during their lifetime is one of the highest among countries with available data. (24 Index, rank 4/21 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short- cycle tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (90 %, rank 1/32 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88 %, rank 5/38 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (5 %, rank 23/29 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who report being in good health is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (86 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who report that they volunteer at least once a month is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (22 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Germany. (10 %, rank 33/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.