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Germany
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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

Education system in Germany

Germany
Overview of the education system (EAG 2016)
  • Between 2008 and 2013, Germany increased its expenditure on educational institutions from primary to post-secondary non-tertiary levels, despite declining enrolments. Expenditure per student in Germany has increased at a much higher rate than the OECD average at these levels, in stark contrast to tertiary education, where the level of expenditure has not kept up with increased enrolment.
  • In Germany, the share of expenditure from private sources (mainly from households) on early childhood education is much higher than that on tertiary education.
  • Teachers in Germany have competitive salaries compared to other tertiary-educated workers, but they are older than the OECD average.
  • Germany’s well-developed vocational education and training programmes strengthen employability and play a key role in its education system. Unemployment rates among adults with upper secondary vocational qualification are among the lowest in OECD countries.
  • Transition to the labour market is smooth for both men and women, but women still have lower employment rates and lower earnings. Across educational attainment levels, the gender gap in earnings between men and women in Germany is close to the OECD average.
  • In Germany, at the tertiary level, there are four times more male graduates than female graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction, a slightly higher gender imbalance than across OECD countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86 %, rank 7/43 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Germany, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 %, rank 10/37 ) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (0 %, rank 32/32 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Germany has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (2 %, rank 3/27 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (38 %, rank 23/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (36 %, rank 20/24 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (27 %, rank 18/20 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (51 %, rank 28/31 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 20-29 year-olds in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90 %, rank 9/41 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98 %, rank 5/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Years, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 Years, rank 31/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Germany. (24 Students, rank 10/32 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11545 USD Equivalent, rank 10/36 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9167 USD Equivalent, rank 9/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13 %, rank 10/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 28/37 ) Download Indicator

    In Germany, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (10 %, rank 26/34 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (123 Index, rank 9/27 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the smallest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (95 Index, rank 19/28 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively small. (100 Index, rank 22/31 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 30/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Students, rank 27/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Germany. (750 Hours, rank 7/31 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively large in Germany. (714 Hours, rank 10/30 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively low in Germany. (13 Ratio, rank 14/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low in Germany. (13 Ratio, rank 12/15 ) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Ratio, rank 26/29 ) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 39 in secondary schools is especially low. (21 %, rank 29/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 40 and 49 in secondary schools is especially low. (25 %, rank 29/35 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58 %, rank 7/17 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21 %, rank 24/24 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38 %, rank 24/33 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38 %, rank 31/37 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66 %, rank 23/32 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69431 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73632 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63961 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 4/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 5/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 4/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 26/31 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 24/31 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (126 Index, rank 6/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Germany. (9 %, rank 38/40 ) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    • Labour market outcomes are better among the higher-educated: on average across OECD countries, the unemployment rate is 12.4% for adults with below upper secondary education, while it is 4.9% for the tertiary-educated.
    • In all OECD countries, earnings differentials between adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education are generally more pronounced than the difference between the earnings of those with upper secondary education and those with below upper secondary education. This suggests large earnings advantages for tertiary education. On average, adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree earn almost twice as those with upper secondary education across OECD countries, and those with a bachelor's or equivalent degree earn 48% more, while those with a short-cycle tertiary degree earn only about 20% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
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    • Across all levels of educational attainment, the gender gap in earnings persists, and although women generally have higher educational attainment, a large gender gap in earnings is seen between male and female full-time workers with tertiary education.
    • Across OECD_countries, tertiary-educated women earn only 73% as much as tertiary-educated men. This gender gap of 27% in earnings for tertiary-educated adults is higher than the gender gap for adults with below upper secondary (24%) and adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (22%).
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5-years-old. Some 71% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that an average of 85% of today's young people in OECD_countries will complete upper secondary education over their lifetime.
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    • Based on current patterns of graduation, an average of 36% of today's young people across OECD countries are expected to graduate from tertiary education at least once before the age of 30.
    • In 2014, a majority of first-time tertiary graduates (72%) earned a bachelor's degree, 12% earned a_master's degree and 16% earned a short-cycle tertiary diploma, on average across OECD countries.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 493 per student per year on primary through tertiary educational institutions: USD 8 477 per primary student, USD 9 980 per lower secondary student, USD 9 990 per upper secondary student and USD 15 772 per tertiary student.
    • In 2013, OECD countries spent an average of 5.2% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education, ranging from 3.5% in Luxembourg to 6.7% in the United Kingdom.
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    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 23 in lower secondary education. These figures represent a decrease when compared to the OECD_average class sizes in 2005.
    • The difference in average class size between public and private institutions in primary education varies substantially across OECD countries, but is considerably larger in partner countries.
    • There are 15 students per teacher in primary education, on average across OECD countries. The_figure increases to 17 students per teacher, on average, at the tertiary level.
    • On average across OECD countries, pre-primary teachers' actual salaries are 74% of the earnings of a tertiary-educated 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker. Primary teachers are paid 81% of these benchmark earnings, lower secondary teachers 85% and upper secondary teachers 89%.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.