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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

Education system in Chile

Chile
Overview of the education system (EAG 2017)
  • Engineering, manufacturing and construction are popular in both upper secondary vocational and tertiary programmes. However, the gender imbalances in these fields are significant.
  • Chile’s annual expenditure per student is low, but it allocates a larger share of total government expenditure to education than the OECD average at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels.
  • Chile has a larger share of young adults with an upper secondary education than the OECD average, at 53% compared to 42%. However, a below-average share of young adults have completed tertiary education: 30% in Chile compared to 42% on average across the OECD.
  • Holders of a master’s, doctoral or equivalent degree earn close to four times as much as those with an upper secondary education (372% more) – the highest earnings advantage among countries with available data.
  • Chile has one of the highest student-teachers ratios and the longest teachers’ statutory working time among OECD countries with available data at the pre-primary to upper secondary levels.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    Chile has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (21.6 %, rank 9/32 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Chile has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (0.2 %, rank 25/27 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Chile has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (50.7 %, rank 8/24 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    Excluding mobile students, Chile has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (37.8 %, rank 7/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Chile is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.6 %, rank 29/36 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (21.3 %, rank 41/42 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Classes are particularly large in lower secondary schools. (31 Students, rank 4/35 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly large in primary schools. (30 Students, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.41 Ratio, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (20.89 Ratio, rank 6/42 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.6 Ratio, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5135 USD Equivalent, rank 35/40 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5309 USD Equivalent, rank 26/31 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4321 USD Equivalent, rank 32/39 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4478 USD Equivalent, rank 35/40 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.2 %, rank 5/38 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.3 %, rank 5/38 ) Download Indicator

    In Chile, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (15.4 %, rank 5/40 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (99 Index, rank 20/29 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the biggest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (105 Index, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively big. (124 Index, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Chile. (1157 Hours, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Chile. (1157 Hours, rank 3/35 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively large in Chile. (1157 Hours, rank 3/35 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25633 USD Equivalent, rank 25/33 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26194 USD Equivalent, rank 25/33 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25633 USD Equivalent, rank 18/27 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25633 USD Equivalent, rank 24/33 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.74 Ratio, rank 19/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.75 Ratio, rank 20/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.81 Ratio, rank 21/26 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite high. (250 Index, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite high. (220 Index, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite high. (233 Index, rank 2/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (138 Index, rank 2/25 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (271 Index, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (472 Index, rank 1/30 ) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    • In most OECD countries, the most popular tertiary degrees held by adults are in business, administration or law. However, interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) grows with higher levels of education, with almost double the share of students graduating from these fields at doctoral level than at bachelor’s level in 2015.
    • STEM-related fields tend to benefit from higher employment rates on average across OECD countries though inequities persist: natural sciences, mathematics and statistics graduates are more likely to have similar employment rates as arts and humanities graduates – both lower than the rates enjoyed by engineers or ICT specialists.
    • Gender parity is still a distant dream for some fields of study. At the tertiary level, women still represent approximately only one in four entrants to engineering, manufacturing and construction, but three out of four entrants in health and welfare on average across OECD countries.
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    • On average across OECD countries, expenditure has been increasing at a much higher rate than student enrolments at all levels, particularly tertiary. Total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions increased by more than twice the rate of students over the same period, reflecting the priority given by government and society to higher education.
    • While public expenditure on educational institutions has clearly been rising, it did not keep up with the increase in GDP between 2010 and 2014 on average across OECD countries. This has led to a decrease of 2% in public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP over the same period.
    • The share of public funding is significantly higher at lower levels of education than for tertiary education on average across OECD countries. While the public sector still provides 91% of the funds at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels, it only provides for 70% of total expenditure at tertiary level.
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    • The teaching profession is getting older, particularly at higher levels of education. On average across OECD countries, 35% of primary to secondary teachers were at least 50 years old in 2015, up 3 percentage points from 2005.
    • The profession is still largely dominated by women, who make up seven out of ten teachers on average across OECD countries. However gender parity improves at higher levels of education – while 97% of teachers at the pre-primary level are women, they make up 43% at the tertiary level.
    • Primary and secondary teachers’ salaries are low compared to other similarly educated full-time workers. While salaries increase with the level of education taught, they still range between 78% and 94% of the salaries of full-time workers with tertiary education on average across OECD countries.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are five years old – 78% of three-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education on average across OECD countries.
    • The proportion of children enrolled in private early childhood education programmes is considerably greater than the private enrolment shares at primary and secondary levels. On average, 55% of children in early childhood educational development programmes and 33% in pre-primary programmes attend private institutions.
    • Public expenditure accounts for 83% of all resources allocated for pre-primary education and 71% of funding for early childhood educational development.
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    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that on average across OECD countries, 80% of today’s young people will graduate from upper secondary education before the age of 25.
    • General upper secondary education programmes are more popular than vocational programmes: 57% of 15-19 year-old students are enrolled in general programmes, compared to 43% in vocational programmes.
    • Adults with upper secondary as highest attainment level have lower employment advantages and are least likely to recover from economic downturns that those that have attained tertiary education.
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    • Based on current patterns of graduation, an average of 49% of today’s young people across OECD countries are expected to graduate from tertiary education at least once in their lifetime.
    • People’s relative earning advantage increases with their level of tertiary education. On average across OECD countries, those with a short-cycle tertiary degree earn only about 22% more than those with upper secondary education, while those with a master’s, doctoral or equivalent degree earn about twice as much.
    • Students become more mobile as they reach higher tertiary education levels. International students account for only 5.6% of total enrolment in tertiary programmes, but over a quarter of enrolments at doctoral level across OECD countries.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2017 for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.