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Diagram of the education system



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Key
  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Canada

    Canada
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Canada has the largest share of tertiary-educated adults among OECD countries: 54% in 2014 (OECD average: 34%). One in four 25-64 year-olds in Canada attained a college diploma as their highest level of education -a larger proportion than in any other OECD country. (“College” refers to both community colleges and polytechnics. Many community colleges and polytechnics in Canada offer both ISCED 5 [short-cycle tertiary] and ISCED 4 [non-tertiary post-secondary] programmes, including occupational preparation and adult education programmes.) While the share of Canadians with a bachelor's or equivalent degree is larger than the OECD average, 9% of Canadians have completed a master's or doctoral degree (OECD average: 12%).
  • The gender gap in earnings is larger in Canada than the OECD average: women earn 75% of what men earn (OECD average: 80%). However, the gender gap in earnings in Canada narrows with increasing educational attainment, which is not the case across OECD countries on average.
  • Canadian teachers are relatively well paid. Salaries per teaching hour after 15 years of experience and with typical qualifications are USD 84 (converted using purchasing power parities, PPPs) at the primary level and USD 90 at the lower and upper secondary levels (OECD average: USD 53 for primary teachers, USD 63 for lower secondary teachers, and USD 71 for upper secondary teachers). Annual salaries of Canadian lower secondary public school teachers with 15 years of experience and typical qualifications (about USD 66 700) are the fourth highest among OECD countries, after Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
  • Expenditure per tertiary student in Canada is about USD 22 000, among the highest of OECD countries after Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States (OECD average: USD 15 000). Tertiary students receive about half of Canada's per capita GDP spending on education, 12 percentage points higher than the OECD average of 40%.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (85 %, rank 7/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 30-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59 %, rank 2/41 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54 %, rank 2/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58 %, rank 3/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45 %, rank 3/40 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25 %, rank 5/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26 %, rank 4/29 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 4/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91 %, rank 6/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86 %, rank 5/41 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67 %, rank 1/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56 %, rank 2/42 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48 %, rank 3/42 ) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (25 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (22 %, rank 1/33 ) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (29 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Canada, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from an upper secondary general programme is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82 %, rank 1/37 ) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (22 Index, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Canada has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (19 Index, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Canada has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education before the age of 30. (15 Index, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Canada has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (1 %, rank 17/24 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Canada has a large share of international students among graduates from short-cycle tertiary programmes. (13 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (27 %, rank 11/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (35 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (36 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (21 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (34 %, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (84 %, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (45 %, rank 10/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    In Canada, the proportion of adults between the ages of 55 and 64 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (17 %, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires straightforward ICT skills is relatively high. (27 %, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job does not require ICT skills is relatively high. (13 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of education is quite high. (50 %, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of human, health and social work is quite high. (35 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22006 USD Equivalent, rank 6/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9680 USD Equivalent, rank 9/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student for core services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15788 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in bachelor's or equivalent programmes (former tertiary-type A) in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4761 USD Equivalent, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in master's or equivalent programmes (former tertiary-type A) in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4961 USD Equivalent, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively high. (4755 USD Equivalent, rank 2/26 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (113 Index, rank 16/23 ) Download Indicator

    In Canada, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6 %, rank 7/38 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the smallest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (92 Index, rank 24/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively small. (98 Index, rank 21/30 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59636 USD Equivalent, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59893 USD Equivalent, rank 4/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59636 USD Equivalent, rank 3/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Canada. (743 Hours, rank 10/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively large in Canada. (745 Hours, rank 8/32 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (44 %, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially high. (44 %, rank 8/36 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (37527 USD Equivalent, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (56550 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (56550 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (56808 USD Equivalent, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90 USD Equivalent, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49 %, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (82 %, rank 28/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (85 %, rank 33/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (84 Index, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (144 Index, rank 26/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (143 Index, rank 27/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (118 Index, rank 11/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (189 Index, rank 8/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who report being in good health is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (87 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.