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Canada
Overview of the education system (EAG 2013)
  • In 2010, only 1% of 3 year-olds and 48% of 4 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education programmes (OECD average in 2011: 67% and 82%, respectively). The vast majority of these children (93%) attended public institutions, a lot more than on an OECD average (68%). There are, however, many different early childhood education and care systems and structures within OECD countries. These differences should be taken into account when drawing conclusions from international comparisons. The data reported by Canada, for example, only includes kindergarten and junior kidergarten students in the public school system.
  • In 2011, 51% of Canada's adult population held a tertiary qualification, the highest attainment rate among OECD countries (OECD average: 32%). Since 2000, the tertiary attainment rate in Canada increased by 11 percentage points. Whereas in 2000, men were more likely than women to hold a tertiary degree in many OECD countries, the opposite was true in 2011. Canada was one of seven OECD countries where tertiary attainment rates for women in 2011 (56%) were higher than for men (46%) by at least 10 percentage points.
  • In Canada, between 2008 and 2011, the unemployment rate for 25-64 year-olds rose by almost 2.6 percentage points, up to 11.7% (it peaked at 12.6% in 2009). Even before the crisis started in 2008, unemployment rates in Canada for those without an upper secondary education (9.1%) were already more than twice as high as for those with a tertiary-level degree (4.1%). Between 2008 and 2011, the unemployment rate for people with a tertiary education only increased by 0.9 percentage points, to 5.0%, from a high of 5.4% in 2010.
  • In Canada, public funding for all levels of education accounted for 76% of the total funding in 2009, compared with 84% on average among OECD countries (year of reference 2010). At the tertiary level, the difference was even greater: 57% of Canadian funding at this level came from public sources compared with an OECD average of 68%. 19% of Canada's public expenditure on tertiary education went to providing public support for households and other private entities. In 2010, Canada ranked among the countries with the highest tuiton fees. The average annual tuition fees charged in Canada for full-time students at public universities in a first-degree program in that year were USD 4 288.
  • Although teachers' salaries vary substantially across countries, they tend to increase with the level of education taught. In Canada, teachers' salaries do not differ that much between the primary, lower secondary and upper secondary levels. In 2011, teachers with 15 years of experience earned about USD 56 000, regardless of the level taught, in comparison with OECD average salaries which ranged from USD 36 000 to USD 41 700 depending on the level taught. Canadian teachers could expect to earn 4% more than the average for tertiary-educated workers.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (88.8 %, rank 7/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (92.5 %, rank 7/35 ) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (82.8 %, rank 7/35 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 30-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (57.9 %, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (51.3 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained vocational programmes in the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (11.8 %, rank 24/27 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds men who have attained vocational programmes in the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (15.4 %, rank 23/27 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds women who have attained vocational programmes in the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (8.3 %, rank 26/27 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained general programmes in the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (25.6 %, rank 4/27 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds men who have attained general programmes in the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (25.8 %, rank 3/27 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds women who have attained general programmes in the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (25.4 %, rank 4/27 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The average age of graduates from general programmes at the upper secondary level in Canada is comparatively low. (17.9 Years, rank 19/28 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young people expected to graduate from pre-vocational and vocational programmes in upper secondary education in Canada is comparatively low (3.5 %, rank 36/36 ) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education of general programme is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (82 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from tertiary-type B (vocational) programmes before turning 30 in Canada ranks as one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (14.4 %, rank 6/21 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational or pre-vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 38/38 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of foreign students in tertiary education in Canada between 2005 and 2011 is one of the smallest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (137.6 %, rank 25/34 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-olds in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (6.6 %, rank 27/35 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in education for 15-29 year-old men in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 30/35 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (22475 USD Equivalent, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    In Canada private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.6 %, rank 4/29 ) Download Indicator

    In Canada the change in public expenditure between 2008 and 2010 on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively large. (110 Index, rank 8/31 ) Download Indicator

    In Canada the change in GDP between 2008 and 2010 is comparatively large. (100 Index, rank 9/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Canada the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively high. (3492 USD Equivalent, rank 7/27 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially high. (16 Students, rank 7/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the largest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (15 Students, rank 10/36 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (56349 USD Equivalent, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (56569 USD Equivalent, rank 5/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (56349 USD Equivalent, rank 2/27 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (56349 USD Equivalent, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (1.04 Ratio, rank 5/22 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (1.04 Ratio, rank 5/27 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (1.04 Ratio, rank 6/27 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (1.04 Ratio, rank 9/27 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Canada. (788 Hours, rank 22/29 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Canada is one of the longest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (5512 Hours, rank 9/31 ) Download Indicator

    Total intended instruction time for primary students in Canada is one of the longest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (5512 Hours, rank 10/31 ) Download Indicator

    Total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary students in Canada is among the longest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (8282 Hours, rank 9/30 ) Download Indicator

    Compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, in Canada is one of the longest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (919 Hours, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    Intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, in Canada is one of the longest among OECD and G20 countries with available data. (919 Hours, rank 7/31 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with only primary or pre-primary education is comparatively low. (53 %, rank 17/26 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with only primary or pre-primary education is comparatively low. (31.4 %, rank 18/26 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among men with a tertiary education is comparatively low. (85 %, rank 27/36 ) Download Indicator


    General findings
    • Across almost all OECD countries, upper secondary attainment is the norm. On average, 75% of 25-64 year-olds and 82% of 25-34 year-olds had reached this level of attainment in 2011. However, despite notable strides, some countries remain far below the OECD average in upper secondary attainment. For example, in Mexico, Portugal and Turkey, less than 20% of the population had attained upper secondary education as the highest level of education in 2011.
    • Vocational education and training is a major factor in the educational attainment of people in many countries. In 2011, a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education was the highest level of attainment for more than 50% of 25-64 year-olds in Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia. However, in these countries, people tend to leave education after attaining upper secondary qualifications. In an additional 10 OECD countries, a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment was the highest educational level for more than 30% of 25-64 year-olds.
    • Tertiary attainment levels have increased considerably over the last decades. On average across OECD countries, the proportion of 25-64 year-olds that hold a tertiary qualification has increased by 4.2% per year since 2000. However, even though tertiary attainment rates have increased in recent years, less than 35% of both men and women had attained a tertiary education in 2011.
    • If current tertiary attainment rates among 25-34 year-olds are maintained, the proportion of adults in France, Ireland, Japan and Korea who have a tertiary education will surpass that of other OECD countries, while the proportion in Austria, Brazil and Germany will fall further behind other OECD countries.
    • Significant progress has been achieved in reducing the gender gap in educational attainment and women have surpassed men in many aspects of education in OECD countries. Among 30-34 year-olds, more than 40% of women had a tertiary education in 2011, surpassing the rate of men with that level of education by about 8 percentage points. Tertiary attainment rates among young women have grown strongly in Australia, Canada, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, Norway and Sweden, where 50% or more of younger women in that age group had attained tertiary education in 2011.
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    • Across OECD countries, employment rates are highest among people who have a tertiary education; and these individuals are also most likely to be employed full time.
    • Unemployment rates are nearly three times higher among individuals who do not have an upper secondary education (13% on average across OECD countries in 2011) than among those who have a tertiary education (5% in 2011).
    • Individuals who have at least an upper secondary education have a greater chance of being employed than those without that level of education.
    • Gender differences in employment rates are smallest among tertiary-educated individuals and largest among men and women who do not have an upper secondary education.
    • In all OECD countries, adults with tertiary education earn more than adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, who, in turn, earn more than adults with a below upper secondary education.
    • On average across OECD countries, the difference in earnings between younger and older workers increases with educational attainment, benefitting more educated older workers. The earnings premium for tertiary-educated 55-64 year-olds is generally larger than that for all tertiary educated workers: in 2011, on average, the earnings differential between these two groups increased by 16 percentage points.
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    • In 2011, on average across OECD countries, 16% of 15-29 year-olds were neither employed nor in education or training (NEET) (7% unemployed and 9% inactive), as were 8% of 15-19 year-olds (2.7% unemployed and 5.8% inactive), and 20% of 25-29 year-olds (8% unemployed and 12% inactive).
    • In Chile, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Spain and Turkey, more than 20% of 15-29 year-olds were NEET in 2011 compared to less than 10% in Austria, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. Unemployment levels are particularly worrying in Greece (14.6% in 2011) and Spain (17.0% in 2011), as is inactivity among young people in those countries (7.1% and 7.5%, respectively, in 2011).
    • On average across OECD countries in 2011, 18% of 15-29 year-old women were NEET (12% inactive and 6% unemployed) as were 13% of 15-29 year-old men (7% unemployed and 6% inactive).
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    • In 2010, OECD countries spent an average of 6.3% of their GDP on educational institutions. Out of the 33 countries for which data were available, this proportion exceeded 7% in Denmark, Iceland, Israel, Korea, New Zealand, Norway and the United States. Only the Czech Republic, Hungary Italy, the Russian Federation and the Slovak Republic spent less than 5% of their GDP on educational institutions.
    • On average, OECD countries spent USD 9 313 annually per student from primary through tertiary education in 2010: USD 7 974 per primary student, USD 9 014 per secondary student and USD 13 528 per tertiary student. Spending per pre-primary student amounted to USD 6 762 per year.
    • While there was no clear global trend in how the proportion of public expenditure on education evolved during the economic crisis, in 14 out of the 30 countries with available data, public expenditure on education grew at a faster rate than public expenditure on all other services between 2008 and 2010.
    • Public funding accounted for 84% of all funds for educational institutions on average in OECD countries in 2010, and between 2000 and 2010, public funding increased for all levels of education combined. However, more pressure has been put on households to share the cost of education, and private funding increased at an even greater rate in more than three-quarters of countries. The share of public and private investment in education differs among education levels. Tertiary institutions and, to a lesser extent, pre-primary institutions obtain the largest proportions of funds from private sources (32% and 18%, respectively, in 2010).
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    • The ratio of students to teaching staff varies across OECD countries and levels of education. At the primary level, there were more than 15 students for every teacher on average in OECD countries in 2011. In most countries, the student-teacher ratio decreases between primary and lower secondary school, despite an increase in class size. In 2011, there were, on average, about 14 students per teacher at the secondary level. At the tertiary level, there were, on average, about 16 students per teacher in OECD countries.
    • The number of teaching hours per teacher in public schools in 2011 averaged 790 hours per year in primary education, 709 hours in lower secondary education, and 664 hours in upper secondary education.
    • Teachers' statutory salaries vary widely across countries, but often increase with the level of education. In 2011, the statutory salaries of teachers with at least 15 years of experience averaged USD 36 135 at the pre-primary level, USD 38 136 at the primary level, USD 39 934 at the lower secondary level, and USD 41 665 at the upper secondary level. Between 2000 and 2011, teachers' salaries increased in real terms in most countries.
    • On average in OECD countries, pre-primary school teachers' salaries in 2011 amounted to 80% of full-time, full-year earnings of tertiary-educated adults working in different occupations. Primary school teachers' salaries amounted to 82% of that income, lower secondary school teachers' salaries amounted to 85% of that benchmark, and upper secondary school teachers' salaries amounted to 89% of those earnings.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.