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Diagram of the education system



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Key
  • Diagram of education system in country language

  • Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

  • Methodological notes for this diagram
  • Education system in Canada

    Canada
    Adult skills (Survey of Adult Skills, PIAAC, 2012)
  • In Canada, the mean proficiency score of 16-65 year-olds in literacy is significantly above the average of the OECD countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). In numeracy, the mean proficiency score is significantly above the average.
  • In Canada, the young adult population (25-34 year-olds) scores at 285 in literacy, compared to 279 on average in the OECD countries participating in the Survey. In numeracy, they score at 277 (274 in average). In both domains, younger adults score higher than their older counterparts (55-65 year-olds).
  • In Canada, 10.4% of the adult population (16-65 year-olds) report no prior experience with computers or lack very basic computer skills. In contrast, 36.6% of the adult population score at the highest levels in problem solving in technology-rich environments.
  • In Canada, 16.4% of the adults score at the lowest levels in literacy and 22.4% score low in numeracy.
  • Profile View

    Select first some countries to compare, choose the charts you wish to display and customise them.

    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    The percentage of adults who opted out of the computer based assessment is low compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (6 %, rank 22/30 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with missing values in the assessment of problem solving in technology-rich environments is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (2 %, rank 10/24 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults who failed the ICT core is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (6 %, rank 8/30 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults who had no computer experience is low compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (4 %, rank 22/30 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults scoring below Level 1 in problem solving in technology-rich environments is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (15 %, rank 10/27 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults scoring at Level 1 in problem solving in technology-rich environments is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (30 %, rank 10/27 ) Download Indicator

    Skills differences between age groups

    The percentage of older adults (55-65 year-olds) scoring high (at Level 2 or 3) in problem solving in technology-rich environments is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (16 %, rank 10/28 ) Download Indicator

    Skills differences by gender

    The percentage of women scoring at Level 2 or 3 in problem solving in technology-rich environments is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (36 %, rank 8/27 ) Download Indicator

    Skills differences by level of education

    The mean literacy score for adults without upper secondary education is low compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (219 PIAAC Score, rank 24/30 ) Download Indicator

    The mean numeracy score for adults without upper secondary education is low compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (206 PIAAC Score, rank 25/30 ) Download Indicator

    The mean numeracy score for adults with tertiary education is low compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (284 PIAAC Score, rank 23/30 ) Download Indicator

    Skills by immigrant and language background

    The mean numeracy score for native-born, native language adults is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (250 PIAAC Score, rank 7/25 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of native-born, native language adults scoring high (at Level 2 or 3) in problem solving in technology-rich environments is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (245 PIAAC Score, rank 9/25 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born, foreign language adults scoring high (at Level 2 or 3) in problem solving in technology-rich environments is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (40 %, rank 9/26 ) Download Indicator

    The mean literacy score for workers in skilled occupations is high compared to other countries participating in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). (24 %, rank 5/16 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
      Literacy is defined as the ability to understand, evaluate, use and engage with written texts in order to participate in society, achieve one's goals, and develop one's knowledge and potential. As measured by the Survey of Adult Skills, literacy encompasses a range of skills, from decoding written words and sentences to understanding, interpreting and evaluating complex texts. It does not, however, involve producing text (writing). Given the growing importance of digital devices and applications as a means of generating, accessing and storing written text, reading digital texts (e.g. texts containing hyper-text and navigation features, such as scrolling or clicking on links) is an integral part of literacy.
    • The average literacy score for the OECD countries participating in the assessment is 268 points. Japan (296 points) has the highest average level of proficiency in literacy followed by Finland (288 points) and the Netherlands (284 points). Chile (220 points) and Turkey (227 points) recorded the lowest average scores among countries. Jakarta (Indonesia) had an even lower average score (200 points). An adult with average literacy proficiency can successfully complete tasks that require paraphrasing, low-level inferences, and matching between the digital or printed text and information.
    • The mean literacy score among 25-34 year-olds is 279 score points, 11 points higher than that for all adults (268 score points). Among the different age groups, 25-34 year-olds have the highest average literacy proficiency, while 55-64 year-olds have the lowest average proficiency (250 score points). While there are some countries/economies where 16-24 year-olds scored higher than 25-34 year-olds, the differences in proficiency between these two age groups are generally small, at less than five score points in Chile, Greece, Jakarta (Indonesia), Lithuania, Singapore and Turkey. In most countries/economies, however, 25-34 year-olds have higher average proficiency than 16-24 year-olds, with a difference of about seven points in Israel and New Zealand, and well above 10 points in England (United Kingdom), Finland and Norway. The literacy proficiency of 55-65 year-olds is particularly low in Chile, Israel, Singapore and Turkey.
    • In general, proficiency in literacy peaks at around age 30.
    Visualisations
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    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
      Numeracy is defined as the ability to access, use, interpret and communicate mathematical information and ideas in order to engage in and manage the mathematical demands of a range of situations in adult life.
    • The average score in numeracy among the OECD countries participating in the assessment is 263 points. Japan has the highest average level of proficiency in numeracy (288 points), followed by Finland (282 points). Chile (206 points), Jakarta (Indonesia) (210 points) and Turkey (219 points) recorded the lowest average scores. An adult with average proficiency in numeracy can successfully complete tasks that require the application of two or more steps or processes involving calculating with whole numbers and common decimals, percentages and fractions; simple measurement and spatial representation; estimation; and interpreting relatively simple data and statistics in texts, tables and graphs.
    • The mean numeracy score among 25-34 year-olds is 274 score points, 11 points higher than that for all adults (263 score points). Among the different age groups, 25-34 year-olds have the highest average numeracy proficiency, while 55-64 year-olds have the lowest average proficiency (246 score points). In general, proficiency in numeracy peaks at around age 30.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
      Problem solving in technology-rich environments is defined as the ability to use digital technology, communication tools and networks to acquire and evaluate information, communicate with others and perform practical tasks. The survey assesses adults' ability to solve problems by establishing appropriate goals and plans, and accessing and using information through computers and computer networks.
    • In nearly all countries, at least 10% of adults have trouble using digital technology, communication tools and networks to acquire and evaluate information, communicate with others and perform practical tasks. Across participating countries, 10% of adults reported having no prior computer experience and a further 4.7% of adults lack the most elementary computer skills, such as the ability to use a mouse. Only 5.4% of adults demonstrate the highest level of proficiency (Level 3) in problem solving in technology-rich environments, where tasks require the ability to use a wider range of applications in less familiar contexts, and to solve problems involving complex pathways to solutions that require navigating around impasses.
    • Given that the widespread use of ICTs is a relatively recent phenomenon, younger adults were clearly in a position of relative advantage compared to older adults. On average, some 45% of 25-34 year-olds can solve more complex problems using computers (i.e. those tasks at proficiency Level 2 or 3 in the problem-solving assessment), compared to only 11% of older adults. However, proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments among younger adults varies widely across countries. In Chile, Greece and Turkey, between 12% and 24% of respondents scored at Level 2 or 3, compared to 55% or more in Denmark, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore and Sweden, and to 67% in Finland. In New Zealand, 24% of older adults scored at Level 2 or 3, but in most other countries this share was smaller than 10%.
    • In general, proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments peaks at around age 25.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.