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Austria
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Austria
Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Early childhood education in Austria is almost universal for 4-5 year-old children, but is still below the OECD average for the 2- and 3- year-olds. More than two out of three 3-year-olds (71%) are enrolled in an early childhood education programme, slightly below the OECD average of 74%.
  • Some 90% of young adults (25-34 year-olds) have attained at least upper secondary education in Austria (the OECD average is 83%). The majority of students (70%) in Austria are enrolled in a vocational track at the upper secondary level (the OECD average is 46%).
  • Tertiary attainment of young adults has steadily increased in Austria, from 31% in 2005 to 38% in 2014. Even though tertiary attainment rates are rising, they still remain slightly below the OECD average (32% in 2005 and 41% in 2014).
  • Educational upward mobility remains remarkably rare. Only 21% of young adults in Austria have attained higher educational qualifications than their parents, one of the lowest rates of upward educational mobility across OECD countries.
  • In Austria, 12.0% of 20-24 year-olds were NEET in 2014, well below the OECD average of 17.9%.
  • Austria maintains a high level of spending per student at all education levels in a system characterised by public funding and fiscal federalism. Austria devoted a particularly large amount of funding to secondary students; its spending of USD 13 806 per student is among the highest across OECD countries.
  • Austria has a rapidly ageing teaching workforce. In recent years, it has seen a 19 percentage-point rise in the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older, from 26% in 2005 to 45% in 2013.
  • Austrian teachers have some of the highest statutory salaries, among the highest across OECD countries at all levels of education. In 2013, upper secondary teachers at the top of their salary scale, for example, were paid USD 74 195, well above the OECD average of USD 52 822.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48 %, rank 5/31 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    Austria has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (15.5 %, rank 3/33 ) Download Indicator

    Austria has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (16.7 %, rank 2/33 ) Download Indicator

    Austria has one of the largest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (14.3 %, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of young people expected to graduate from vocational programmes in upper secondary education in Austria is comparatively high (78.5 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    In Austria, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.5 %, rank 10/28 ) Download Indicator

    Austria has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (26 Index, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Austria has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (26 Index, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Austria has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education before the age of 30. (25 Index, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (22 %, rank 8/33 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Austria has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (53 Index, rank 8/23 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Austria has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (45 Index, rank 7/19 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Austria has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (39.8 %, rank 5/16 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Austria has one of the lowest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (57 Index, rank 16/24 ) Download Indicator

    A large share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes in Austria compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (14.4 %, rank 5/19 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among graduates from bachelor's or equivalent programmes is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (13.6 %, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational or pre-vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.2 %, rank 2/38 ) Download Indicator

    In Austria the percentage of young people expected to enter short-cycle tertiary programmes during their lifetimes is comparatively high. (35.1 %, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    In Austria, the percentage of international students enrolled in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.8 %, rank 5/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young nationals expected to enter a short-cycle tertiary programme during their lifetime is comparatively high in Austria. (34.5 %, rank 3/16 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of young people expected to enter a doctorate or equivalent programme during their lifetime in Austria is relatively high. (4 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of young nationals expected to enter a doctorate or equivalent programme during their lifetime is high compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 5/22 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international students entering tertiary education in Austria is relatively high. (23.2 %, rank 3/18 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international students entering bachelor's programmes is relatively high. (24.3 %, rank 2/22 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students younger than 25-year-old entering short-cycle tertiary programmes is relatively high. (82.1 %, rank 6/26 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Austria is relatively large. (27.5 %, rank 5/22 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international or foreign students enrolled in masters programmes in Austria is comparatively large. (19.3 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes in Austria is comparatively large. (19.7 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (21.3 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (21.2 %, rank 18/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (57.5 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (43.8 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively low. (7.8 %, rank 19/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults whose educational attainment is lower than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (21.4 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (57.5 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (41.5 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with the same educational attainment as their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (57.5 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with an upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (46.3 %, rank 3/20 ) Download Indicator

    In Austria, the proportion of men among 25-34 year-old first generation tertiary-educated non-students is quite high compared to other countries. (50.8 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of male graduates in agriculture from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (9.4 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in the services sector from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (29.8 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female graduates in agriculture from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (7.5 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (83.7 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the services sector is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (79.3 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in sciences is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (33.3 %, rank 30/36 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (30.3 %, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year old adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among workers in manufacturing jobs is quite high. (39.4 %, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13189 USD Equivalent, rank 5/37 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13806 USD Equivalent, rank 4/38 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13632 USD Equivalent, rank 3/35 ) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core and ancillary services, from primary to below-tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12164 USD Equivalent, rank 4/39 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 %, rank 27/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.7 %, rank 33/35 ) Download Indicator

    In Austria, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (9.6 %, rank 24/32 ) Download Indicator

    In Austria, the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively high. (3609 USD Equivalent, rank 5/26 ) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.3 %, rank 3/35 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in government-dependent private institutions for a master's or equivalent level education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (861 USD Equivalent, rank 3/6 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in government-dependent private institutions for a bachelor's or equivalent level education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (861 USD Equivalent, rank 4/7 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries with available data, Austria has one of the largest shares of public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions. (95.7 %, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 32/39 ) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Students, rank 33/37 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50183 USD Equivalent, rank 10/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43015 USD Equivalent, rank 7/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.77 Ratio, rank 12/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.89 Ratio, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.97 Ratio, rank 4/21 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Austria. (607 Hours, rank 26/33 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (32.4 %, rank 27/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (24.2 %, rank 32/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (25.7 %, rank 30/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of secondary teachers younger than 40 is especially low. (24.8 %, rank 33/36 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (64014 USD Equivalent, rank 5/32 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (66378 USD Equivalent, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (74195 USD Equivalent, rank 5/31 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (64014 USD Equivalent, rank 4/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.96 Ratio, rank 6/26 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.07 Ratio, rank 5/31 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55346 USD Equivalent, rank 2/21 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55346 USD Equivalent, rank 3/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63863 USD Equivalent, rank 3/22 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69632 USD Equivalent, rank 4/24 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.7 %, rank 3/16 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Classes are particularly small in primary schools. (18 Students, rank 27/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (83.3 %, rank 9/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (6.3 %, rank 29/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (147 Index, rank 29/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (59 Index, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (76.6 %, rank 34/38 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (5.7 %, rank 3/12 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (4.3 %, rank 24/29 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (136 Index, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (171 Index, rank 6/21 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who report that they volunteer at least once a month is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (22.7 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education reporting that they trust others is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (21.3 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Austria. (12 %, rank 31/36 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.
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