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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • > Notes on the education system in Australia
    Education system in Australia

    Australia
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2019)
  • The gender gap in tertiary attainment has increased in the past decade. In 2018, 59% of young womenin Australia were tertiary educated compared to 44% of young men.
  • Young adults with upper secondary vocational education, particularly men, have good labour-market prospects in Australia: 83% of all 25-34 year-olds with an upper secondary vocationalqualification (Certificate III) are employed, one of the highest rates across OECD countries.
  • Enrolment of 3 -year-old children in early childhood education and care is still low. Only 67% ofthem were enrolled in 2017, 12 percentage points below the OECD average.
  • The actual salaries of lower secondary teachers in Australia is about one-third higher than averageacross OECD countries. They earn about 94% as much as other tertiary-educated workers, one of thesmallest differences across OECD countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    In Australia, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (25.5 %, rank 7/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (32.9 Years, rank 1/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes in Australia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.2 Years, rank 33/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    In Australia, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (22.2 %, rank 10/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (28.8 %, rank 4/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (6.1 %, rank 25/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (29.1 %, rank 6/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (11.6 %, rank 27/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The proportion of 25-64 years-old adults with below upper secondary education participating in formal education is high in Australia. (4.9 %, rank 10/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Among adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education, a low proportion participate in non-formal education. (13.4 %, rank 29/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Among adults (25-64 years-old) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, a low participate in non-formal education. (24.6 %, rank 31/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Among adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education, a low participate in non-formal education. (39.6 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90 %, rank 10/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.6 %, rank 1/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of part-time students in doctoral programmes in Australia is relatively large. (29.1 %, rank 10/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme in Australia ranks as one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 6/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (59.5 %, rank 1/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (22.1 %, rank 7/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, the percentage of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.6 %, rank 25/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (5.9 %, rank 24/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (1.6 %, rank 6/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Australia is relatively low. (49.7 %, rank 19/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.4 %, rank 5/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.3 %, rank 36/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.3 %, rank 8/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively low. (9.6 %, rank 20/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Australia is relatively low. (3.1 %, rank 32/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Australia is relatively low. (7.9 %, rank 35/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Australia has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.5 %, rank 2/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Australia is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.1 %, rank 3/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28 Students, rank 1/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, international students from Asia are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (85.7 %, rank 4/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, international students from Europe are least represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 40/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, international students from Oceania are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 3/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities in Australia is relatively low. (7.1 %, rank 34/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information in Australia is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law in Australia is relatively high. (50.6 %, rank 1/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertairy students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Australia is relatively low. (4.6 %, rank 28/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international tertiary students enrolled in the field of services in Australia is relatively low. (0.7 %, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 29/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Australia, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1000 Hours, rank 8/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Australia. (24 Students, rank 6/32 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10013 USD Equivalent, rank 10/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4778 USD Equivalent, rank 15/19 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Australia is comparatively low. (208 USD Equivalent, rank 22/25 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary educational services on primary to tertiary education in Australia is comparatively low. (340 USD Equivalent, rank 20/25 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Australia, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (5.8 %, rank 8/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.9 %, rank 4/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (1.9 %, rank 2/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.9 %, rank 4/31 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.7 %, rank 4/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.5 %, rank 6/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (32.4 %, rank 2/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (12.5 %, rank 10/38 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Change in public expenditure on educational institutions for primary to tertiary education between 2010 and 2016 in Australia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-6.7 %, rank 25/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively small. (81.3 %, rank 32/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small. (39.5 %, rank 30/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (67.6 %, rank 34/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in early childhood and primary education is one of the highest in Australia compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (36 USD Equivalent, rank 4/30 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Tuition fees

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by public institutions, for foreign students in bachelor's or equivalent level in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19029 USD Equivalent, rank 3/6 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by public institutions, for foreign students in master's or equivalent level in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18318 USD Equivalent, rank 1/5 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by independent private institutions, for foreign students in bachelor's or equivalent level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10810 USD Equivalent, rank 1/3 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by independent private institutions, for foreign students in master's or equivalent level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11449 USD Equivalent, rank 1/3 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the percentage of students who do not benefit from public/government-guaranteed private loans or public scholarships/grants is comparatively high. (11.5 %, rank 10/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially high. (196 Days, rank 6/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63393 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.93 Ratio, rank 4/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.94 Ratio, rank 7/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56196 USD Equivalent, rank 4/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63393 USD Equivalent, rank 6/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Australia. (1.07 Ratio, rank 4/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Australia. (0.87 Ratio, rank 7/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Australia relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (51500 USD Equivalent, rank 2/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Australia. (58473 USD Equivalent, rank 5/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (44287 USD Equivalent, rank 5/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (65421 USD Equivalent, rank 9/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (44247 USD Equivalent, rank 6/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (63393 USD Equivalent, rank 5/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers less time to progress through the salary scale in Australia compared to other OECD and partner countries. (7 Years, rank 24/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.48 Ratio, rank 26/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Lower-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Australia. (1.78 Ratio, rank 3/22 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average lower secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (105703 USD Equivalent, rank 1/23 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.4 %, rank 31/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (65.6 %, rank 10/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (21 %, rank 21/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (87 Index, rank 7/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (131 Index, rank 31/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (82.5 %, rank 9/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (131 Index, rank 32/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (107 Index, rank 26/29 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a Master's, doctoral or equivalent education degree are comparatively low. (152 Index, rank 29/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Australia. (75.7 %, rank 7/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Australia. (108.7 %, rank 7/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Australia. (106.9 %, rank 7/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Australia. (108.9 %, rank 10/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Australia. (115.2 %, rank 9/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Migrant background

    The percentage of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.3 %, rank 26/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born aged between 15 and 29 who are neither employed nor in education and training is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.5 %, rank 23/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born aged between 15 and 29 and who are not in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.1 %, rank 28/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of native-born 15-29 year-olds neither employed nor in education and training is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 %, rank 22/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    Among employed adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education, a large share have difficulties to fulfill their family responsabilities because of their jobs, compared to other countries with available data. (62.1 %, rank 3/18 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Among employed adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education, a large share have difficulties to fulfill their family responsabilities because of their jobs, compared to other countries with available data. (65.5 %, rank 2/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of employed adults (25-64 years-old) with below upper secondary education who have concentration difficulties at work because of family responsabilities is low in Australia. (26.3 %, rank 11/18 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of employed adults (25-64 years-old) with tertiary education who have concentration difficulties at work because of family responsabilities is high in Australia. (39.4 %, rank 8/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Weekly working hours among employed 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education are short in Australia compared to other OECD countries. (36.3 Hours/week, rank 21/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Weekly working hours among employed 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are short in Australia compared to other OECD countries. (38.2 Hours/week, rank 21/28 , 2015) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • In 2018, 44% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 35% in 2008, on average across OECD countries.
    • Tertiary-educated adults also reap higher earnings, although this varies by field of study. Their advantage increases with age too: 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education earn 38% more than their peers with upper secondary education while 45-54 year-olds earn 70% more.
    • While engineering, manufacturing and construction, and information and communication technologies are two fields most commonly associated with the best labour market outcomes, only 14% of graduates earned a degree in the former and 4% earned a degree in the latter in 2017.
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    • Although graduation from upper secondary education increased by 6 percentage points between 2005 and 2017, 15% of 25-34 year-olds did not attain upper secondary education in 2018, on average across OECD countries.
    • In some countries, vocational programmes are prominent at the upper secondary level. On average across OECD countries, 40% of first-time upper secondary graduates earned a vocational qualification in 2017; in Austria, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia, more than 66% of this population did.
    • At the lower secondary level, the average class shrank by 6% while teachers’ statutory salaries increased by 8% between 2005 and 2017, on average across OECD countries.
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    • In 2017, more than one in three children under the age of three were enrolled in early childhood education and care services, on average across OECD countries - an increase of 7 percentage points compared to 2010.
    • Between the age of 3 to 5, on average across OECD countries, 87% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education.
    • Annual expenditure per child in early childhood development programmes was greater than in pre-primary education in 2016 on average across OECD countries. However, as a share of GDP, expenditure on early childhood development is lower.
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    • In 2016, expenditure per tertiary student amounted to USD 15 556, approximately one-third of which was devoted to research and development.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at the tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
    • OECD countries spent an average of 3.5% of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary institutions in 2016, and public expenditure at this level increased by 18% since 2005.
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    • About 10% of primary and secondary teachers are under the age of 30, on average across OECD countries.
    • While the teaching profession is dominated by women, the share of female teachers decreases with the level of education taught: almost all teachers at the pre-primary level are women, however they make up less than half of the teaching force at tertiary level.
    • Salaries tend to increase with the level of education taught, but teachers' earnings remain between 78% and 93% of the earnings of other tertiary-educated adults.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Australia

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.