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Australia
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Diagram of the education system



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Key

- Diagram of education system in country language

- Old diagram using ISCED 1997 classification

- General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams

- Notes on the country's education system
Education system in Australia

Australia
Overview of the education system (EAG 2015)
  • Greater participation in education at all ages makes lifelong learning a reality in Australia. Some 7% of adults aged 40-64 are enrolled in full-time or part-time programmes, 5 percentage points higher than the OECD average. Since 2010, the overall number of students aged 30-39 enrolled in all levels of education has risen to 13%, exceeding the OECD average by 7 percentage points.
  • In Australia, international students make up 18% of total tertiary enrolment (OECD average: 9%). There are 21 foreign students in Australia for every Australian student who studies abroad. Australia remains attractive in spite of higher tuition fees for international students. For bachelor's or equivalent programmes, public institutions charge international students up to USD 14 546 compared to USD 4 473 for national students.
  • Adults in Australia with higher levels of attainment are more likely to have a job, but earnings are more balanced than in other OECD countries. Tertiary-educated adults (25-64 year-olds) earn 34% more than those who attained only upper secondary education, compared to 60% more, on average, across OECD countries.
  • The percentage of 4-year-olds in Australia who participate in early childhood education rose from 51% in 2005 to 80% in 2013 - on a par with rates for OECD and partner countries with available data. Expenditure per student in all early childhood education is USD 10 146, among the highest across OECD countries (OECD average: USD 7 886).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42 %, rank 8/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48 %, rank 8/40 ) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34 %, rank 8/40 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (24 %, rank 5/42 ) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (26 %, rank 4/42 ) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Australia, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from an upper secondary general programme is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (75 %, rank 4/37 ) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (28 Index, rank 2/30 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes during their lifetime. (26 Index, rank 1/20 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education before the age of 30. (12 Index, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (61 Index, rank 1/34 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (43 Index, rank 5/25 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (34 Index, rank 4/22 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (2 %, rank 9/24 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (74 Index, rank 1/23 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetimes. (44 Index, rank 11/19 ) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (36 %, rank 10/16 ) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Australia has one of the lowest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (57 Index, rank 17/24 ) Download Indicator

    A large share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes in Australia compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (42 %, rank 1/19 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Australia has a large share of female graduates from doctoral or equivalent programmes. (50 Index, rank 10/40 ) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries, Australia has a large share of international students among graduates from short-cycle tertiary programmes. (9 %, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among graduates from bachelor's or equivalent programmes is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (30 %, rank 1/25 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among graduates from master's or equivalent programmes is high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (56 %, rank 2/24 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 5-14 year-olds in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (101 %, rank 1/39 ) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 20-29 year-olds in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34 %, rank 6/37 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the number of expected years in formal education (all levels combined) between the ages of 5 and 39 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19 Years, rank 4/39 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia the percentage of young people expected to enter bachelor's or equivalent programmes during their lifetimes is comparatively high. (91 %, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the percentage of international students enrolled in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18 %, rank 2/35 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of foreign students in tertiary education in Australia between 2005 and 2012 is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (141 %, rank 27/36 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in part-time education for 5-39 year-old men in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 Years, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    The expected number of years in part-time education for 5-39 year-old women in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 Years, rank 3/29 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young nationals expected to enter a bachelor's or equivalent programme during their lifetime is comparatively high. (76 %, rank 2/22 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of young people expected to enter a doctorate or equivalent programme during their lifetime in Australia is relatively high. (4 %, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Australia is relatively large. (57 %, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international students entering bachelor's programmes is relatively high. (16 %, rank 5/22 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Australia is relatively large. (46 %, rank 3/22 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international or foreign students enrolled in masters programmes in Australia is comparatively large. (38 %, rank 2/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes in Australia is comparatively large. (14 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young nationals expected to enter bachelor's or equivalent programmes before turning 25-years-old is among the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (60 %, rank 2/20 ) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults whose educational attainment is higher than that of their parents is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (36 %, rank 9/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (27 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old female adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (32 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults without upper secondary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (9 %, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old male adults with a tertiary education and with the same educational attainment as their parents is comparatively high. (22 %, rank 4/20 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-34 year-old adults in tertiary education whose parents had not attained upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (45 %, rank 3/19 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of women among 25-34 year-old first generation tertiary-educated non-students is quite high compared to other countries. (61 %, rank 6/20 ) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The proportion of female graduates in health and welfare from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (37 %, rank 5/30 ) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Australia is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6000 Hours, rank 3/34 ) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Australia is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4000 Hours, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Australia is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10000 Hours, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1000 Hours, rank 2/34 ) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly large in primary schools. (24 Students, rank 8/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    The theoretical duration of primary and lower secondary education, in years, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Years, rank 1/36 ) Download Indicator

    The number of grades that are part of compulsory primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Years, rank 4/36 ) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively large in Australia. (25 Students, rank 5/31 ) Download Indicator

    Problem solving in technology-rich environments

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (15 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (33 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (56 %, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old adults who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (37 %, rank 6/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults between the ages of 45 and 54 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (32 %, rank 4/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults between the ages of 55 and 64 who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is one of the highest among other countries with available data. (19 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The share of women among 25-64 year-old adults who demonstrate having good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills is relatively high compared to other countries. (36 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires moderate ICT skills is relatively high. (56 %, rank 5/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job requires straightforward ICT skills is relatively high. (28 %, rank 3/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of adults with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults whose job does not require ICT skills is relatively high. (14 %, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of education is quite high. (58 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of workers with good ICT (information and communication technologies) and problem-solving skills among 25-64 year-old adults in the field of human, health and social work is quite high. (39 %, rank 1/17 ) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10298 USD Equivalent, rank 4/28 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total expenditure between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (130 Index, rank 7/32 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels is comparatively large. (106 Index, rank 6/30 ) Download Indicator

    The change in the number of students between 2005 and 2012 at the tertiary level is comparatively large. (133 Index, rank 6/29 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18 %, rank 3/36 ) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55 %, rank 6/35 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (14 %, rank 10/32 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the change in public expenditure between 2008 and 2012 on primary to tertiary education, including subsidies to households is comparatively large. (119 Index, rank 5/27 ) Download Indicator

    The change in total public expenditure for all services, including education, between 2008 and 2012 is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (116 Index, rank 3/30 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in bachelor's or equivalent programmes (former tertiary-type A) in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4473 USD Equivalent, rank 5/20 ) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in master's or equivalent programmes (former tertiary-type A) in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7334 USD Equivalent, rank 2/17 ) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively high. (3608 USD Equivalent, rank 6/26 ) Download Indicator

    The change in private expenditure between 2005 and 2012 on primary through post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (139 Index, rank 5/22 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level, excluding subsidies) as a percentage of GDP is among the biggest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (118 Index, rank 2/29 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively big, excluding subsidies. (123 Index, rank 1/29 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2008 and 2010, the change in GDP is comparatively big. (104 Index, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in expenditure on educational institutions (from primary to tertiary level) as a percentage of GDP, excluding subsidies, is among the smallest of all OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (91 Index, rank 26/30 ) Download Indicator

    Between 2010 and 2012, the change in public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions is comparatively small. (97 Index, rank 24/30 ) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (28 %, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 Students, rank 19/28 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Australia. (879 Hours, rank 8/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Australia. (821 Hours, rank 7/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively large in Australia. (812 Hours, rank 5/32 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary school is especially large. (196 Days, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially large. (196 Days, rank 6/31 ) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in upper secondary school is especially large. (194 Days, rank 5/31 ) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55894 USD Equivalent, rank 5/32 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55894 USD Equivalent, rank 5/31 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56163 USD Equivalent, rank 2/26 ) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55858 USD Equivalent, rank 4/32 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 6/19 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 9/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 12/20 ) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 Ratio, rank 13/21 ) Download Indicator

    The change between 2003 and 2013 in statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Australia. (111 Index, rank 6/24 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (37619 USD Equivalent, rank 5/35 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (55084 USD Equivalent, rank 5/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (55213 USD Equivalent, rank 6/33 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (55213 USD Equivalent, rank 6/32 ) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (37748 USD Equivalent, rank 4/29 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (55157 USD Equivalent, rank 3/27 ) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (57025 USD Equivalent, rank 6/26 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49535 USD Equivalent, rank 4/21 ) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50737 USD Equivalent, rank 6/22 ) Download Indicator

    Economic and social outcomes

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (6 %, rank 31/37 ) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (3 %, rank 35/37 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (85 Index, rank 6/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (88 Index, rank 4/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (141 Index, rank 27/34 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (134 Index, rank 31/34 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from post-secondary non-tertiary education during their lifetime is one of the highest among countries with available data. (37 Index, rank 1/21 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (51 Index, rank 6/36 ) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary graduates in health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (22 %, rank 4/30 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (114 Index, rank 18/20 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (137 Index, rank 14/21 ) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (161 Index, rank 16/17 ) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (108 Index, rank 6/13 ) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • On average, over 80% of tertiary-educated people are employed compared with over 70% of people with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and less than 60% of people with below upper secondary education.
    • Across OECD countries, compared with adults with upper secondary education with income from employment, those with a tertiary degree earn about 60% more.
    • Adults with higher qualifications were more likely to report desirable social outcomes, including good or excellent health, participation in volunteer activities, interpersonal trust, and political efficacy.
    • First generation tertiary-educated adults and tertiary-educated adults whose parents also hold a tertiary degree share similar employment rates and pursue similar fields of study.
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    *The radar plot will by default not display more than five countries to avoid cluttering.
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    • OECD countries have made significant progress in narrowing gender gaps in educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. Nevertheless, in tertiary education, young women are still under-represented in the fields of mathematics, physical science and computing.
    • One in five 20-24 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. In addition, young people with lower attainment levels are more likely to be unemployed than their counterparts with higher attainment level.
    • Participation in employer-sponsored education is strongly related to proficiency levels in key skills such as literacy and numeracy as well as to educational attainment. About 57% of employed adults with good skills in ICT and problem solving participate in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, while only 9% of adults who cannot use a computer and lack of problem solving skills do.
    • When parents' education is taken into account, adults with tertiary education are 23 percentage points more likely than those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest level of education to be among the top 25% in monthly earnings.
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    • In a majority of OECD countries, education now begins for most children well before they are 5 years old. Some 74% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education across OECD countries.
    • The average primary school class in OECD countries has 21 students, and this average increases to 24 in lower secondary education. Larger classes are correlated with less time spent on actual teaching and learning and with more time spent on keeping order in the classroom. Specifically, one additional student added to an average-size class is associated with a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in time spent on teaching and learning activities.
    • Graduating from upper secondary education has become increasingly important in all countries. Analysing countries for which comparable trends data are available for 2005 and 2013, the first-time graduation rate at the upper secondary level increased from 79% to 84%.
    • Across OECD countries, 77% of individuals with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification are employed - a rate that is 7 percentage points higher than that among individuals with a general upper secondary education as their highest qualification.
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    • Even though tertiary attainment is increasing, entry rate to more advanced tertiary degrees such as master's and doctoral levels tend to be lower than bachelor. More than one in two students is expected to enter a bachelor degree programme, compared to about one in five for master degree programmes
    • In most OECD and partner countries, labour market opportunities are better for adults with a master's degree or equivalent than for adults with a bachelor's degree.
    • Doctoral students tend to be much more internationally mobile than other students in tertiary education, and they are also more likely to study sciences and engineering. Women are still under-represented in doctoral programmes. In most OECD countries in 2013, around 45% of advanced.
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    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 220 per student per year from primary through tertiary education, with large variations between levels of education : Educational institutions spend an average of 1.2 times more per secondary student and 1.8 times more per tertiary student than per primary student.
    • Public funding accounts for 83% of funds for educational institutions from primary to tertiary education; varying from 91% for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions to 70% for tertiary institutions.
    • OECD countries spend an average of 5.3% of GDP on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education.
    • The share of private funding in tertiary education is increasing over the last 10 years, and the differentiation of tuition fees is increasing: About two thirds of private funding of tertiary institutions comes from households, through tuition fees.
    • More than 60% of current expenditure relates to compensation of teaching staff at primary and secondary levels. In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005, and, only half of OECD countries show an increase in real terms between 2008 and 2013.
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    • Pre-primary and primary teachers earn 79% of the salary of a similarly-educated, 25-64 year-old full-time, full-year worker, lower secondary teachers are paid 81%, and upper secondary teachers are paid 83% of that benchmark salary.
    • Public school teachers teach an average of 1 005 hours per year at the pre-primary level, 772 hours at the primary level, 694 hours at the lower secondary level, and 643 hours at the upper secondary level of education. In countries with available data, the amount of teaching time in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education remained largely unchanged between 2000 and 2013.
    • The teaching workforce across OECD countries is ageing with the proportion of secondary teachers aged 50 or older climbed by 3 percentages points between 2005 and 2013, on average among countries with comparable data.
    • Teacher appraisal is legislated/required by policy or regulation in three-quarters of OECD and partner countries with available data.
    • Despite the increased use of ICT in a student's life, the use of ICTs in learning and pedagogy remains scarce. This may be because, among other things, teachers feel they are not sufficiently skilled in using ICT.
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.