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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • > Notes on the education system in Australia
    Education system in Australia

    Australia
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2018)
  • Access to education is widespread in Australia and levels of attainments are increasing for all students. However, on average women still have lower salaries and employment rates than men at all levels of education.
  • Australia has comparatively high tuitions fees at the tertiary level and funding relies on public grants and loans for most students. Australia has one of the highest shares of 18-24 year-olds in education who are also employed.
  • Both enrolment rates and expenditure on educational institutions per student increased in the past decade, although public funding fell as a share of total expenditure while private funding increased.
  • Early childhood education and care (ECEC) services and pre-primary education have been particularly targeted by specific policies aimed at increasing quality and attendance.
  • Australia has particularly high rates of international or foreign students at tertiary level despite a wide gap between national and international students' tuitions fees. In contrast, very few national students study abroad.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45.4 %, rank 9/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52 %, rank 7/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.8 %, rank 9/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.6 %, rank 10/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59.3 %, rank 6/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the highest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (11.5 %, rank 9/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (25.6 %, rank 5/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree. (6.9 %, rank 30/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 7/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50.6 %, rank 34/39 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (59.8 %, rank 1/38 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (20.5 %, rank 9/38 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctorate or an equivalent education during their lifetime. (1.6 %, rank 6/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Among OECD countries and partner economies with available data, Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education during their lifetime. (76.6 %, rank 1/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 5-14 year-olds in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/43 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91.4 %, rank 8/39 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational or pre-vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56 %, rank 10/42 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.7 %, rank 2/40 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 25-29 year-olds in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30 %, rank 3/40 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Intergenerational mobility

    The share of 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education among those whose parents have not attained upper secondary education is comparatively high in Australia. (25.7 %, rank 8/27 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old adults without upper secondary education among those for whom at least one parent has attained tertiary education is comparatively high in Australia. (6.7 %, rank 8/27 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The share of new female entrants to doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare in Australia is relatively high. (22.7 %, rank 10/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Australia has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 5/42 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Australia is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.7 %, rank 3/46 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering doctorate or equivalent programmes in Australia is relatively large. (38.7 %, rank 8/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20344 USD Equivalent, rank 6/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12829 USD Equivalent, rank 8/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9546 USD Equivalent, rank 10/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12303 USD Equivalent, rank 8/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9343 USD Equivalent, rank 8/18 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student for core services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14159 USD Equivalent, rank 4/32 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.5 %, rank 5/35 , 2013) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6186 USD Equivalent, rank 8/34 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Australia, expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (0.2 %, rank 30/33 , 2014) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core and ancillary services, from primary to tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12829 USD Equivalent, rank 8/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student for core, ancillary services and research and development, from tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20344 USD Equivalent, rank 6/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Australia, total public expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (72.3 %, rank 28/31 , 2014) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Australia, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6 %, rank 7/37 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Australia, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.8 %, rank 8/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Australia, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2 %, rank 5/37 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Australia, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (2 %, rank 3/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Australia, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education is comparatively high. (121 %, rank 2/28 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.8 %, rank 3/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.2 %, rank 7/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Australia, public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (66.4 %, rank 35/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Public expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.5 %, rank 31/35 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.2 %, rank 5/39 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2012 in private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (116 Index, rank 5/27 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (33.6 %, rank 3/36 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the smallest shares of public expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (81.2 %, rank 35/37 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Australia, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (13.5 %, rank 10/39 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Change in public expenditure (including subsidies to households) on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education as a percentage of total public expenditure between 2011 and 2015 in Australia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88 Index, rank 20/20 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Tuition fees

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in bachelor's or equivalent programmes (former tertiary-type A) in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4785 USD Equivalent, rank 5/23 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Australia. (865 Hours, rank 10/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively large in Australia. (797 Hours, rank 7/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively large in Australia. (797 Hours, rank 6/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively small in Australia. (903 Hours, rank 17/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59568 USD Equivalent, rank 4/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59568 USD Equivalent, rank 5/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59568 USD Equivalent, rank 2/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59568 USD Equivalent, rank 3/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.92 Ratio, rank 5/23 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.93 Ratio, rank 5/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.93 Ratio, rank 9/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (41798 USD Equivalent, rank 3/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (59043 USD Equivalent, rank 3/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (59568 USD Equivalent, rank 7/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers less time to progress through the salary scale in Australia compared to other OECD and partner countries. (7 Years, rank 23/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54654 USD Equivalent, rank 2/25 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54914 USD Equivalent, rank 4/28 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55313 USD Equivalent, rank 5/28 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55313 USD Equivalent, rank 8/28 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In pre-primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.43 Ratio, rank 18/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.43 Ratio, rank 23/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.43 Ratio, rank 23/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.43 Ratio, rank 23/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59568 USD Equivalent, rank 7/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59568 USD Equivalent, rank 8/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59568 USD Equivalent, rank 3/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59568 USD Equivalent, rank 5/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary women teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.09 Ratio, rank 6/22 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary men teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year men workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.85 Ratio, rank 6/22 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The average lower secondary men teacher's actual salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54977 USD Equivalent, rank 4/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The average lower secondary women teacher's actual salary is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55868 USD Equivalent, rank 4/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (4.4 %, rank 36/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (81.8 %, rank 10/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.6 %, rank 25/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (90 Index, rank 4/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (131 Index, rank 32/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (82.5 %, rank 9/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers without upper secondary education are comparatively high. (87 Index, rank 4/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (131 Index, rank 33/37 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (107 Index, rank 25/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a Master's, doctoral or equivalent education are comparatively low. (152 Index, rank 29/32 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The proportion of 20-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Australia. (11.5 %, rank 30/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Migrant background and education status

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.7 %, rank 3/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.3 %, rank 10/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (53.8 %, rank 19/27 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born 15-29 year-olds in education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.9 %, rank 3/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of foreign-born 15-29 year-olds neither employed nor in education and training is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.5 %, rank 23/29 , 2015) Download Indicator

    The percentage of native-born 15-29 year-olds neither employed nor in education and training is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 %, rank 22/30 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Governance

    The percentage of decisions taken at the central level of government for public lower secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (0 %, rank 27/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of decisions taken at the central level or state level of government for public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (47.9 %, rank 8/16 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of decisions taken at the school level of for public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (52.1 %, rank 6/34 , 2017) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • Adults without tertiary-educated parents face greater challenges to attain tertiary level themselves: Only 21% do compared to 68% among those with at least one tertiary-educated parent.
    • While there is little difference on average between the level of tertiary attainment among native-born and foreign-born adults, there are large variations across countries. In Mexico the tertiary attainment of foreign-born adults is more than double that of native-born. In contrast, native-born adults in Slovenia are almost twice more likely to have attained tertiary education than their foreign-born peers.
    • The gender gap favors girls in education but men in the labour market: 50% of 25-34 year-old women attained tertiary education in 2017 compared to 38% of men. However the employment rate of tertiary-educated young women is about 9 percentage points less than for men and they earn only 74% as much as men with similar educational attainment on average across OECD countries.
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    • In 2015, OECD countries spent on average around 5% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on educational institutions from primary to tertiary levels , with variations across countries from 3.1% in the Russian Federation to 6.4% in Norway.
    • On average, OECD countries spend USD 10 391 a year on educational institutions to educate each student from primary to tertiary education. This represents about USD 8 600 per student at primary level, USD 9 900 at secondary level and USD 15 500 at tertiary level.
    • Primary and secondary education accounts for almost 70% of total expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions, or around 3.5% of GDP, on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2015, public funding represented more than 80% of total expenditure on primary to tertiary educational institutions across the OECD countries, varying from 62% in Colombia to 99% in Norway. However only two thirds of total expenditure is financed through public sources on tertiary institutions on average across OECD countries.
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    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • While the teaching profession is dominated by women, the share of female teachers decreases with the level of education taught: almost all teachers at the pre-primary level are women; however they make up less than half of the teaching force at tertiary level.
    • On average across OECD countries, statutory salaries of teachers at the top of their salary scales (and maximum qualifications) are between 77% and 81% higher than starting salaries (with minimum qualifications).
    • Teachers’ actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 82% to 96% of earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries.
    • While the average actual salary of primary and secondary female teachers is equal to or higher than the average earnings of full-time, tertiary-educated working women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 77% and 88% of the average earnings of full-time, tertiary-educated working men.
    • Based on official regulations, public school teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 1 030 hours per year at pre-primary level, 771 hours at primary level, 693 hours at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 646 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • On average across OECD countries, there are 15 students per teacher in primary education, 13 students per teacher in secondary education and 15 students per teacher in tertiary education.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 75% of children aged 3 are enrolled in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC).
    • At age 4, on average across OECD countries, almost 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary education.
    • Annual expenditure per child in early childhood development programmes was greater than in pre-primary education in 2015 on average across OECD countries.
    • Public funds represent a higher share of total expenditure at pre-primary level than on early childhood development programmes.
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    • The share of first-time upper secondary graduates with a vocational qualification varied from 6% in Canada to 78% in Austria in 2016 with an average of 41% across OECD countries.
    • In 2016, across OECD countries, teaching hours for upper secondary, general programmes vary greatly from 405 hours in Denmark to 1064 hours in Chile with an average of 655 hours.
    • In 2016, the ratio of students to teaching staff in public upper secondary educational institutions across OECD countries varies from 9 in Portugal to 22 in Mexico with an average of 13 across OECD countries.
    • The employment rate for adults with upper secondary education is 18 percentage points higher than for those without. The employment advantage varies from 6 percentage points in Mexico to more than 30 percentage points in the Czech and Slovak Republics.
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    • Between 2007 and 2017, the share of tertiary-educated young adults increased by 10 percentage points on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2015, OECD countries spent on average around 1.5% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on tertiary educational institutions, ranging from 0.5% in Luxembourg to 2.6% in the United States.
    • On average in OECD countries, 59% of young adults will enter a bachelor’s degree or equivalent programme in their lifetime while 24% are expected to enter a master’s or equivalent programme.
    • While there are large variations across countries, international and foreign students account for 6% of total enrolment in tertiary programmes and reach more than a quarter of enrolments at doctoral level on average across OECD countries.
    • Tertiary-educated adults are more likely to be employed and earn about 55% more than those with upper secondary education on average across OECD countries.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Australia

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2017 for more details about the data collections.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.